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Research article2019Peer reviewedOpen access

The AvrPm3-Pm3 effector-NLR interactions control both race-specific resistance and host-specificity of cereal mildews on wheat

Bourras, Salim; Kunz, Lukas; Xue, Minfeng; Praz, Coraline Rosalie; Mueller, Marion Claudia; Kalin, Carol; Schlafli, Michael; Ackermann, Patrick; Fluckiger, Simon; Parlange, Francis; Menardo, Fabrizio; Schaefer, Luisa Katharina; Ben-David, Roi; Roffler, Stefan; Oberhaensli, Simone; Widrig, Victoria; Lindner, Stefan; Isaksson, Jonatan; Wicker, Thomas; Yu, Dazhao;
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The wheat Pm3 resistance gene against the powdery mildew pathogen occurs as an allelic series encoding functionally different immune receptors which induce resistance upon recognition of isolate-specific avirulence (AVR) effectors from the pathogen. Here, we describe the identification of five effector proteins from the mildew pathogens of wheat, rye, and the wild grass Dactylis glomerata, specifically recognized by the PM3B, PM3C and PM3D receptors. Together with the earlier identified AVRPM3(A2/F2), the recognized AVRs of PM3B/C, (AVRPM3(B2/C2)), and PM3D (AVRPM3(D3)) belong to a large group of proteins with low sequence homology but predicted structural similarities. AvrPm3(b2/c2) and AvrPm3(d3) are conserved in all tested isolates of wheat and rye mildew, and non-host infection assays demonstrate that Pm3b, Pm3c, and Pm3d are also restricting the growth of rye mildew on wheat. Furthermore, divergent AVR homologues from non-adapted rye and Dactylis mildews are recognized by PM3B, PM3C, or PM3D, demonstrating their involvement in host specificity.

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Nature Communications
2019, Volume: 10, article number: 2292

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