Skip to main content
Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2019

The repellency and toxicity effects of essential oils from the Libyan plants Salvadora persica and Rosmarinus officinalis against nymphs of Ixodes ricinus

Elmhalli, Fawzeia; Garboui, Samira S.; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Mozuraitis, Raimondas; Baldauf, Sandra L.; Grandi, Giulio


Essential oils extracted from the leaves of Libyan Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), and Miswak (Salvadora persica L.) were evaluated for their acaricidal and repellent effects on Ixodes ricinus L. nymphs (Acari: Ixodidae) using a bioassay based on an open filter paper method'. Rosmarinus officinalis leaf essential oil diluted to 0.5 and 1 mu l/cm(2) in acetone exhibited, respectively, 20 and 100% tick mortality after about 5h of exposure. A total of 50 and 95% of I. ricinus nymphs were killed by direct contact with the oil when exposed to lethal concentrations (LC)of 0.7 mu l/cm(2) (LC50) and 0.95 mu l/cm(2) (LC95), respectively. The LC50 (0.5 mu l/cm(2)) was reached before the end of the first 24h of exposure time (ET), as tick mortality at 24h was 60%. Salvadora persica leaf essential oil at 1 mu l/cm(2) showed a significant repellency effect against I. ricinus nymphs at 1.5h ET. A 95% repellency was observed at a repellent concentration (RC95) of 1 mu l/cm(2) of S. persica, but no significant mortality was recorded at this dose of S. persica oil. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses showed that the main monoterpenes in both oils were 1,8-cineol, -pinene, and -pinene, although in markedly different proportions. These results suggest that essential oils have substantial potential as alternative approaches for I. ricinus tick control.


Rosmarinus officinalis; Salvadora persica; Essential oils; Acaricidal; Ixodes ricinus

Published in

Experimental and Applied Acarology
2019, volume: 77, number: 4, pages: 585-599
Publisher: SPRINGER

Authors' information

Elmhalli, Fawzeia
Uppsala University
Garboui, Samira S.
University of Benghazi
Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin
Royal Institute of Technology
Mozuraitis, Raimondas
Stockholm University
Baldauf, Sandra L.
Uppsala University

Associated SLU-program

SLU Network Plant Protection

UKÄ Subject classification

Pharmacology and Toxicology

Publication Identifiers


URI (permanent link to this page)