Skip to main content
Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2019

Urine 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in Cavalier King Charles spaniels with preclinical myxomatous mitral valve disease

Christiansen, L. B.; Cremer, S. E.; Helander, A.; Madsena, Tine; Reimann, M. J.; Moller, J. E.; Hoglund, K.; Ljungvall, I; Haggstrom, J.; Olsen, L. H.


Higher concentrations of circulating serotonin have been reported in Cavalier King Charles spaniels (CKCS) compared to other dog breeds. The CKCS is also a breed highly predisposed to myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD). The aim of this study was to determine urine concentrations of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), the major metabolite and excretion product of serotonin, in a population of CKCS with preclinical MMVD, and to evaluate whether urine 5-HIAA concentrations were associated with MMVD severity, dog characteristics, setting for urine sampling, platelet count, and serotonin concentration in serum and platelet-poor plasma (PPP). The study population consisted of 40 privately-owned CKCS (23 females; 17 males) with and without preclinical MMVD as follows: American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM) group A (n =11), ACVIM group B1 (n = 21) and ACVIM group B2 (n = 8).Urine 5-HIAA concentrations were not significantly associated with preclinical MMVD disease, platelet count or circulating concentrations of serotonin (in serum and PPP; P> 0.05). Females had higher 5-HIAA concentrations than males in morning urine collected at home (females, 3.1 [2.9-3.7] mu mol/mmol creatinine [median and quartiles]; males, 1.7 [1.2-2.2] creatinine; P= 0.0002) and urine collected at the clinic (females, 3.5 [3.1-3.9] mu mol/mmol creatinine; males, 1.6 [1.3-2.1] mu mol/mmol creatinine; P < 0.0001). Five-HIAA concentrations in urine collected at home and at the clinic were significantly associated (P= 0.0004; r= 0.73), and higher concentrations were found in urine collected at the clinic (P= 0.013). Urine 5-HIAA concentration was influenced by sex and setting of urine sampling. Urine 5-HIAA concentration was not associated with MMVD severity or circulating concentrations of serotonin in CKCS with preclinical disease. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


5-HIAA; Biomarker; Canine; Mitral valve disease; Serotonin metabolite

Published in

Veterinary Journal
2019, volume: 250, pages: 36-43

Authors' information

Christiansen, L. B.
University of Copenhagen
Cremer, S. E.
University of Copenhagen
Helander, A.
Karolinska Institutet
Madsena, Tine
University of Copenhagen
Reimann, M. J.
University of Copenhagen
Moller, J. E.
Odense University Hospital
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Biochemistry (AFB)
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Clinical Sciences
Olsen, L. H.
University of Copenhagen

UKÄ Subject classification

Clinical Science

Publication Identifiers


URI (permanent link to this page)