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Research article2019Peer reviewedOpen access

Detection, Identification, and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. from Free-ranging Nonhuman Primates in Sri Lanka

Tegner, Cecilia; Sunil-Chandra, N. P.; Wijesooriya, W. R. P. L. I.; Perera, B. Vijitha; Hansson, Ingrid; Fahlman, Asa


Infections with Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. are the most frequently reported causes of human bacterial enteritis. Warm-blooded animals, including livestock, pets, and wildlife, can be carriers of the bacteria and may contaminate the environment and food products. The present study investigated the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. in fecal pat samples from free-ranging toque macaques (Macaca sinica) and tufted gray langurs (Semnopithecus priam) collected in March-May 2015 in Sri Lanka. In 58 samples from toque macaques, Campylobacter jejuni was isolated in 10 (17%), Campylobacter coli in four (7%), and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Virchow in two (3%). None of the bacteria were isolated in the 40 samples from tufted gray langurs. Pulse-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing identified six profiles and four clonal complexes of C. jejuni. The isolated Campylobacter spp. showed varying susceptibility to antimicrobial substances. All Campylobacter spp. isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol, erythromycin, florfenicol, gentamicin, and streptomycin. Four of the C. jejuni were resistant to at least one of the following: ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, and tetracycline, and one of the isolates was multidrug resistant. All four C. coli were resistant to ampicillin, whereas the two Salmonella Virchow strains were susceptible to all antibiotics tested. The presence of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. in toque macaques may have an impact on the conservation of endangered primates and public health in Sri Lanka.


Antimicrobial resistance; Campylobacter spp.; conservation; nonhuman primates; PFGE; Salmonella spp.

Published in

Journal of Wildlife Diseases
2019, Volume: 55, number: 4, pages: 879-884

      Associated SLU-program

      SLU Swedish Biodiversity Centre
      AMR: Bacteria

      Sustainable Development Goals

      SDG2 End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture
      SDG3 Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages

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