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Research article2019Peer reviewedOpen access

Historical perspectives on green structure development: the examples of Stockholm, Sweden and Xi'an, China

Xiu, Na; Ignatieva, Maria; van den Bosch, Cecil Konijnendijk


Green structure has undergone many changes during the process of urban development. This paper compares Stockholm, Sweden, and Xi'an, China, in order to illustrate these changes over time and how they reflect the deeper human-nature relationship. This type of analysis can uncover the cultural identity of different cities and clarify urban forms that are common to other geographical locations. We found well-preserved green structure of different periods in the two cities, indicating similar structural development traditions but using different components. Analysis and comparison of three stages of formation revealed that conflicts between the built environment and green structure are an illustration of human-nature interactions, which change with cultural and societal changes in different areas. We argue that rethinking green structure and invoking deep respect for nature is a starting point for resolving such conflicts and the wider environmental crisis.


City planning; cosmology; built environment; organic nature; urban design

Published in

Landscape Research
2019, Volume: 44, number: 8, pages: 1050-1063

      SLU Authors

    • Sustainable Development Goals

      Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable

      UKÄ Subject classification

      Landscape Architecture

      Publication identifier


      Permanent link to this page (URI)