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Report, 2018

Local and regional variations in conditions for agriculture and food security in Uganda

Bernard, Barasa


Uganda’s agricultural environment is characterized by smallholder farmers. Majority of these are found in rural areas and food insecure. This study specifically explored to understand and put across the determinants of local and regional distribution of key crops grown and livestock reared; constraints and opportunities along the agricultural value chain; and institutional and stakeholder involvement in setting policy agenda. This information was born through review of published and grey literature. The findings of this comprehensive review broadly reveal that the major key crops grown in Uganda today are: coffee, bananas, maize, beans, cassava and rice; while in terms of animals and birds: cattle, goats, pigs and local chicken are the most kept by farmers respectively for food security. In terms of local and regional variations, coffee and banana are highly productive in the eastern and western highlands while the remaining crops flourish in the flat plains and valleys (wetlands). The dryland belt ‘cattle corridor’ that stretches from north-eastern to south-west Uganda has the highest numbers of livestock reared. Considering both the livestock and crop value chains, constraints which are also the determinants of opportunities, can be categorized along four dimensions, namely: a) production and productivity constraints, b) market access and value addition constraints; c) enabling environment constraints and d) Institutional Framework constraints. Since 2000, informed by the Poverty Eradication Action Plan the agriculture policy frameworks have been formulated against the backdrop of the Plan for Modernisation of Agriculture (PMA) as a multisectoral policy framework for agriculture, food security and rural development. Before the formulation of PMA, agricultural interventions were scattered and there was no comprehensive policy framework to guide the sector. Currently, the PMA – thus subsequent policies, programs and plans, have not yet recognised a holistic approach in modernizing agriculture, as well as the interconnection among the various sectoral stakeholders. However, harmonisation and implementation of these policies and associated programmes and plans should provide leverage for enhanced productivity and reduced food insecurity. This study provides synergies between agriculture and food security to guide future policy formulations, enactment of pending bills and allocation of funds. Potential areas of investment in smallholder agriculture are presented and how to transform the sub sector into a profitable venture.


agriculture and food security; Uganda

Published in

AgriFoSe2030 Report
2018, number: 5
eISBN: 978-91-576-9551-2
Publisher: SLU Global, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences

Authors' information

Bernard, Barasa
Makerere University

UKÄ Subject classification

Environmental Sciences related to Agriculture and Land-use

URI (permanent link to this page)