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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2020

Highly Porous Amorphous Calcium Phosphate for Drug Delivery and Bio-Medical Applications

Sun, Rui; Ahlen, Michelle; Tai, Cheuk-Wai; Bajnoczi, Eva G.; de Kleijne, Fenne; Ferraz, Natalia; Persson, Ingmar; Stromme, Maria; Cheung, Ocean


Amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) has shown significant effects on the biomineralization and promising applications in bio-medicine. However, the limited stability and porosity of ACP material restrict its practical applications. A storage stable highly porous ACP with Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area of over 400 m(2)/g was synthesized by introducing phosphoric acid to a methanol suspension containing amorphous calcium carbonate nanoparticles. Electron microscopy revealed that the porous ACP was constructed with aggregated ACP nanoparticles with dimensions of several nanometers. Large angle X-ray scattering revealed a short-range atomic order of <20 angstrom in the ACP nanoparticles. The synthesized ACP demonstrated long-term stability and did not crystallize even after storage for over 14 months in air. The stability of the ACP in water and an alpha-MEM cell culture medium were also examined. The stability of ACP could be tuned by adjusting its chemical composition. The ACP synthesized in this work was cytocompatible and acted as drug carriers for the bisphosphonate drug alendronate (AL) in vitro. AL-loaded ACP released 25% of the loaded AL in the first 22 days. These properties make ACP a promising candidate material for potential application in biomedical fields such as drug delivery and bone healing.


amorphous calcium phosphate; porous materials; cytocompatibility; drug carrier; bisphosphonate

Published in

2020, volume: 10, number: 1, article number: 20
Publisher: MDPI

Authors' information

Sun, Rui
Uppsala Univ
Ahlen, Michelle
Uppsala Univ
Tai, Cheuk-Wai
Stockholm Univ
Bajnóczi, Éva (Bajnóczi, Éva)
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Molecular Sciences
de Kleijne, Fenne
Uppsala Univ
Ferraz, Natalia
Uppsala Univ
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Molecular Sciences
Stromme, Maria
Uppsala Univ
Cheung, Ocean
Uppsala Univ

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