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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2020

Temperature-Mediated Plasticity Regulates the Adaptation of Phytophthora infestans to Azoxystrobin Fungicide

Lurwanu, Yahuza; Wang, Yan-Ping; Abdul, Waheed; Zhan, Jiasui; Yang, Li-Na


Fungicide is one of the main approaches used in agriculture to manage plant diseases for food production, but their effectiveness can be reduced due to the evolution of plant pathogens. Understanding the genetics and evolutionary processes responsible for the development of fungicide resistance is a key to food production and social sustainability. In this study, we used a common garden experiment to examine the source of genetic variation, natural selection, and temperature contributing to the development of azoxystrobin resistance in Phytophthora infestans and infer sustainable ways of plant disease management in future. We found that plasticity contributed to 40% of phenotypic variation in azoxystrobin sensitivity while heritability accounted for 16%. Further analysis indicated that overall population differentiation in azoxystrobin sensitivity (QsT) was significantly greater than the overall population differentiation in simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker (Fsr), and the P infestans isolates demonstrated higher level of azoxystrobin sensitivity at the higher experimental temperature. These results suggest that changes in target gene expression, enzymatic activity, or metabolic rate of P. infestans play a more important role in the adaptation of the pathogen to azoxystrobin resistance than that of mutations in target genes. The development of azoxystrobin resistance in P. infestans is likely driven by diversifying selection for local adaptation, and elevated temperature associated with global warming in the future may increase the effectiveness of using azoxystrobin to manage P. infestans. The sustainable approaches for increasing disease control effectiveness and minimizing the erosion of the fungicide efficacy are proposed.


fungicide efficacy; QsTIF FT comparisons; Phytophthora infestans; sustainable disease management; diversifying selection; global warming

Published in

2020, volume: 12, number: 3, article number: 1188
Publisher: MDPI

Authors' information

Lurwanu, Yahuza
Fujian Agr and Forestry Univ
Wang, Yan-Ping
Fujian Agr and Forestry Univ
Abdul, Waheed
Fujian Agr and Forestry Univ
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology
Yang, Li-Na
Fujian Agr and Forestry Univ

Associated SLU-program

SLU Network Plant Protection

Sustainable Development Goals

SDG2 Zero hunger
SDG12 Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns

UKÄ Subject classification

Agricultural Science

Publication Identifiers


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