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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2020

Pesticide Residues in Peri-Urban Bovine Milk from India and Risk Assessment: A Multicenter Study

Gill, J. P. S.; Bedi, J. S.; Singh, Randhir; Fairoze, Mohd Nadeem; Hazarika, R. A.; Gaurav, Abhishek; Satpathy, Sudhir Kumar; Chauhan, Abhimanyu Singh; Lindahl, Johanna; Grace, Delia; Kumar, Amit; Kakkar, Manish


Pesticides residue poses serious concerns to human health. The present study was carried out to determine the pesticide residues of peri-urban bovine milk (n=1183) from five different sites (Bangalore, Bhubaneswar, Guwahati, Ludhiana and Udaipur) in India and dietary exposure risk assessment to adults and children. Pesticide residues were estimated using gas chromatography with flame thermionic and electron capture detectors followed by confirmation on gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. The results noticed the contamination of milk with hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), dichloro-diphenyl trichloroethane (DDT), endosulfan, cypermethrin, cyhalothrin, permethrin, chlorpyrifos, ethion and profenophos pesticides. The residue levels in some of the milk samples were observed to be higher than the respective maximum residue limits (MRLs) for pesticide. Milk samples contamination was found highest in Bhubaneswar (11.2%) followed by Bangalore (9.3%), Ludhiana (6.9%), Udaipur (6.4%) and Guwahati (6.3%). The dietary risk assessment of pesticides under two scenarios i.e. lower-bound scenario (LB) and upper-bound (UB) revealed that daily intake of pesticides was substantially below the prescribed acceptable daily intake except for fipronil in children at UB. The non-cancer risk by estimation of hazard index (HI) was found to be below the target value of one in adults at all five sites in India. However, for children at the UB level, the HI for lindane, DDT and ethion exceeded the value of one in Ludhiana and Udaipur. Cancer risk for adults was found to be in the recommended range of United States environment protection agency (USEPA), while it exceeded the USEPA values for children.

Published in

Scientific Reports
2020, volume: 10, number: 1, article number: 8054

Authors' information

Gill, J. P. S.
Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University (GADVASU)
Bedi, J. S.
Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University (GADVASU)
Singh, Randhir
Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University (GADVASU)
Fairoze, Mohd Nadeem
Karnataka Veterinary, Animal and Fisheries Sciences University (KVAFSU)
Hazarika, R. A.
Assam Agricultural University
Gaurav, Abhishek
Rajasthan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences
Satpathy, Sudhir Kumar
KIIT University
Chauhan, Abhimanyu Singh
Public Health Foundation of India
International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)
Uppsala University
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Clinical Sciences
Grace, Delia
International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)
Kumar, Amit
Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University (GADVASU)
Kakkar, Manish
Public Health Foundation of India

Sustainable Development Goals

SDG3 Good health and well-being

UKÄ Subject classification

Environmental Sciences related to Agriculture and Land-use
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology

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