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Doctoral thesis, 2000

Environmental valuation and policy : applications in the management of endangered species, recreation, and tourism

Fredman, Peter


This thesis applies the contingent valuation method (CVM) to endangered species, forest recreation and mountain tourism. The subjects addressed are benefits of environmental amenities, non-response bias and choice of policy instrument. The thesis consists of two parts: an introduction to environmental valuation and policy, and five separate papers.
The first paper estimates the benefits of preserving the endangered white-backed woodpecker (Dendrocopos leucotos) in Sweden. The absence of a positive marginal value of an increased population density is considered an indication of an existence value, which is given a theoretical illustration using the notion of a minimum viable population.
The second paper studies non-response bias in the willingness-to-pay estimate of the first paper using two different follow-up surveys. No indications of a non-response bias are found, and non-responses are believed to occur because of general reasons rather than survey specific ones.
The third paper focuses on the distance between recreational forests and places of residence in Sweden. Almost half of the Swedish population would prefer a shorter distance than they currently have, and it is argued that residential areas should be planned to have a recreational forest within walking distance (<1 kilometer) in order to meet the preferences of a majority of the population.
The fourth paper combines a segmentation of visitors, using a wilderness preference index, with a contingent valuation study of environmental and management attributes at a mountain tourist destination. Increased benefits following from a spatial differentiation of the management regime are estimated to approximately one million SEK.
​​​​​​​The fifth paper analyses the choice between Pigouvian taxes (fees) and quantitative permits when the marginal benefit of endangered species protection is known and the cost uncertain. The best policy is to set a quantitative regulation equal to the minimum viable population, and from the choice of an inappropriate policy measure may follow extinction.


contingent valuation; policy; management; benefits; endangered species; minimum viable population; existence value; non-response; public goods; forest; recreation; wilderness purism; nature tourism

Published in

Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae. Silvestria
2000, number: 136
ISBN: 91-576-5870-6
Publisher: Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences

Authors' information

Fredman, Peter
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Economics

UKÄ Subject classification

Economic Geography

URI (permanent link to this page)