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Research article2020Peer reviewedOpen access

Correlation between the Antimicrobial Activity and Metabolic Profiles of Cell Free Supernatants and Membrane Vesicles Produced by Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938

Maccelli, Alessandro; Carradori, Simone; Puca, Valentina; Sisto, Francesca; Lanuti, Paola; Crestoni, Maria Elisa; Lasalvia, Alba; Muraro, Raffaella; Bysell, Helena; Di Sotto, Antonella; Roos, Stefan; Grande, Rossella


The aim of the work is to assess the antimicrobial activities of Cell Free Supernatants (CFS) and Membrane Vesicles (MVs), produced by Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938, versus Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and investigate their metabolic profiles. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration was determined through the broth microdilution method and cell proliferation assay while the Minimum Bactericidal Concentration was determined by Colony Forming Units counts. The characteristics of the antimicrobial compounds were evaluated by pH adjustments, proteinase treatment, and size fractionation of the CFS. The cytotoxicity of CFS was tested on two human cell lines. A detailed snapshot of the L. reuteri metabolism was attained through an untargeted metabolic profiling by means of high resolution Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) coupled with Electrospray Ionization Source (ESI). The results showed (i) a greater efficacy of CFS and its fractions towards Gram-negative compared to Gram-positive bacteria; (ii) an antimicrobial effect related to pH-dependent compounds but not to MVs; (iii) a molecular weight < 3 KDa as well as an a non-proteinaceous nature of the antimicrobial compounds; and (iv) more than 200 and 500 putative metabolites annotated in MVs and supernatants, covering several classes of metabolites, including amino acids, lipids, fatty and organic acids, polyalcohols, nucleotides, and vitamins. Some putative compounds were proposed not only as characteristic of specific fractions, but also possibly involved in antimicrobial activity.


Lactobacillus reuteri; Limosilactobacillus reuteri; cell free supernatant; metabolomics; extracellular and membrane vesicles; antimicrobial activity; biofilm; probiotics

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2020, Volume: 8, number: 11, article number: 1653

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    AMR: Bacteria

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