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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2021

Laboratory-scale and pilot-scale stabilization and solidification (S/S) remediation of soil contaminated with per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs)

Soerengard, Mattias; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Kleja, Dan B.; Ahrens, Lutz


Remediation of soil contaminated with per-and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) is critical due to the high per-sistence and mobility of these compounds. In this study, stabilization and solidification (S/S) treatment was evaluated at pilot-scale using 6 tons of soil contaminated with PFAS-containing aqueous film-forming foam. At pilot scale, long-term PFAS removal over 6 years of precipitation (simulated using irrigation) in leachate from non-treated contaminated reference soil and S/S-treated soil with 15 % binder and 0.2 % GAC was compared. PFAS removal rate from leachate, corresponding to reduction in leaching potential after 6 years, was 97 % for four dominant PFASs (perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS) and per-fluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS)), but low (3%) for short-chain perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA). During the pilot scale experiment, PFAS sorption strength (i.e., soil-water partitioning coefficient (Kd)) increased 2to 40-fold for both reference and S/S-treated soil, to much higher levels than in laboratory-scale tests. However, PFAS behavior in pilot scale and laboratory-scale tests was generally well-correlated (p < 0.001), which will help in future S/S recipe optimization. In addition, seven PFASs were tentatively identified using an automated suspect screening approach. Among these, perfluorohexanesulfonamide and 3:2 fluorotelomer alcohol were tentatively identified and the latter had low removal rates from leachate (< 12 %) in S/S treatment.


PFAS; PFOS; Soil remediation; Stabilization

Published in

Journal of Hazardous Materials
2021, volume: 402, article number: 123453
Publisher: ELSEVIER

Authors' information

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment
Gago-Ferrero, Pablo
Institut Catala de Recerca de l'Aigua (ICRA)
Swedish Geotechnical Institute (SGI)
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Soil and Environment
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment

UKÄ Subject classification

Soil Science

Publication Identifiers


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