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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2020

Concurrent Validity of Equine Joint Range of Motion Measurement: A Novel Digital Goniometer versus Universal Goniometer

Bergh, Anna; Lauridsen, Nicole Gandre; Hesbach, Amie Lamoreaux

Abstract

Simple SummaryWith the growth of the field of equine rehabilitation, there is an increased demand on rehabilitation clinicians to utilize simple and reliable objective outcome assessment tools. Goniometry, the measurement of joint angles, traditionally performed with a universal goniometer (UG), is a commonly utilized assessment tool in monitoring problems of the musculoskeletal system, as well as the progression of rehabilitation interventions. Goniometry has been demonstrated to be of value, being both reliable and valid, in humans and other animal species. There are different types of goniometers, each of which has some benefit, but varies in accessibility, cost, and user-friendliness. This study examined the use of a novel digital goniometer (DG) in the measurement of angles of two joints in a horse, and comparing the measurements to those taken with a UG. The study demonstrated significant differences in range of motion for the carpus and fetlock joint, a 2-3 degrees difference comparing measurements on a sedated horse with corresponding radiographs, a "fair" to "excellent" inter-tester reliability and a "fair" to "almost perfect" intra-tester reliability. The novel DG was found to be easier to use than the UG. In conclusion, the novel DG may serve as a simple tool for measuring joint motion in equine rehabilitation patients.Goniometry is the measurement of joint angles with a conventional universal goniometer (UG) or a digital goniometer (DG). The UG is validated for use in dogs and cats. However, it demands both of the user's hands when measuring. To avoid this, a novel type of DG has been developed, simplifying measurement by offering single-hand usage. The objective of this study is to examine the concurrent validity of the DG. The study consists of measurement with the DG and UG for flexion of the carpus and fetlock on ten horses, and with the DG in flexion and neutral positioning of the fetlock on a sedated horse and corresponding radiographs, intra- and inter-tester reliability and a survey on user-friendliness. The data were analyzed with ANOVA and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), with a significance of p < 0.05. The study showed significant differences in range of motion for the carpus and fetlock joint, a 2-3 degrees difference comparing measurements on a sedated horse with corresponding radiographs, a "fair" to "excellent" inter-tester reliability and a "fair" to "almost perfect" intra-tester reliability, and the DG was easier to use than the UG. In conclusion, the novel DG may serve as a simple tool for measuring joint motion in equine rehabilitation patients.

Keywords

goniometry; equine; digital; universal; joint range of motion; rehabilitation; physiotherapy

Published in

Animals
2020, volume: 10, number: 12, article number: 2436
Publisher: MDPI

Authors' information

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Clinical Sciences
Gandre Lauridsen, Nicole
No organisation
Lamoreaux Hesbach, Amie
EmpowerPhysio

UKÄ Subject classification

Clinical Science

Publication Identifiers

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122436

URI (permanent link to this page)

https://res.slu.se/id/publ/110197