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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2020

Growth and modulus of elasticity of pine species and hybrids three years after planting in South Africa

Nilsson, O.; Hodge, G. R.; Frampton, L. J.; Dvorak, W. S.; Bergh, J.


Growth data and modulus of elasticity (MOE) of 11 different pine species and hybrids were examined at six sites in three regions in South Africa. Growth traits and three MOE variables were measured at three years of age in order to evaluate whether other potential pine species were more suitable than the current commercial species. There were strong observed species differences for all three MOE variables both within and across the four sites measured for wood properties, with across-site MOE ranging from 3.03 to 6.40 GPa. Green density varied among species, and an assumed constant green density of 1 000 kg m-3 underestimated MOE for species with a very high green density; similarly, for species with a very low green density, MOE was overestimated. Although survival was poor at several sites, the data shows that there are alternative pine species that exhibit comparable growth rates to the current commercial species. For estimating MOE, it is concluded that assuming a constant green density generally does not affect the species ranking, but if the aim is to find the 'true' MOE, sampling in the field to determine the appropriate green density is needed.


green density; MOE; Pinus; plantations

Published in

Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science
2020, volume: 82, number: 4, pages: 367-376

Authors' information

Forestry Research Institute of Sweden, Skogforsk
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre
Hodge, G. R.
University of North Carolina
Frampton, L. J.
University of North Carolina
Dvorak, W. S.
University of North Carolina
Bergh, J.
Linnaeus University

UKÄ Subject classification

Forest Science

Publication Identifiers


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