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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2021

Preparation and Evaluation of Rice Bran-Modified Urea Formaldehyde as Environmental Friendly Wood Adhesive

Islam, Md Nazrul; Faruk, Md Omar; Rana, Md Nasim; Das, Atanu Kumar; Habib, Ahsan


In this study, defatted rice bran (RB) is used to prepare an environmentally friendly adhesive through chemical modifications. The RB is mixed with distilled water with ratios of 1:5 and 1:4 to prepare Type A and Type B adhesives, respectively having pH of 6, 8 and 10. Type A adhesive is prepared by treating RB with 1% potassium permanganate and 4% poly(vinyl alcohol), whereas Type B is formulated by adding 17.3% formaldehyde and 5.7% urea to RB. Viscosity, gel time, solid content, shear strength, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is carried out, and glass transition temperature (T-g), and activation energy (E-a) are determined to evaluate the performance of the adhesives. E-a data reveal that adhesives prepared at mild alkaline (pH 8) form long-chain polymers. Gel time is higher in the fabricated adhesives than that of the commercial urea formaldehyde (UF). FTIR data suggest that functional groups of the raw RB are chemically modified, which enhances the bondability of the adhesives. Shear strength data indicates that bonding strength increases with increasing pH. Similar results are also observed for physical and mechanical properties of fabricated particleboards with the adhesives. The results demonstrate that RB-based adhesives can be used as a potential alternative to currently used UF-based resin.


adhesive properties; defatted rice bran; particleboard properties; rice bran-based adhesive

Published in

Global Challenges
2021, Volume: 5, number: 6, article number: 2000044

    Sustainable Development Goals

    SDG12 Responsible consumption and production

    UKÄ Subject classification

    Wood Science

    Publication identifier


    Permanent link to this page (URI)