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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2021

Secondary Forests and Agrarian Transitions: Insights from Nepal and Peru

Pain, Adam; Marquardt, Kristina; Khatri, Dil


We provide an analytical contrast of the dynamics of secondary forest regeneration in Nepal and Peru framed by a set of common themes: land access, boundaries, territories, and rights, seemingly more secure in Nepal than Peru; processes of agrarian change and their consequences for forest-agriculture interactions and the role of secondary forest in the landscape, more marked in Peru, where San Martin is experiencing apparent agricultural intensification, than in Nepal; and finally processes of social differentiation that have consequences for different social groups, livelihood construction and their engagement with trees, common to both countries. These themes address the broader issue of the necessary conditions for secondary forest regeneration and the extent to which the rights and livelihood benefits of those actively managing it are secured.


Forest and agrarian transitions; Secondary forest; Territory; Social differentiation; Rural households; Indigenous peoples; Nepal; Peruvian Amazon

Published in

Human Ecology
2021, Volume: 49, number: 3, pages: 249-258