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Conference paper - Peer-reviewed, 2021

Applying Affordances Scale as a Design Method – Case Virtual Reality Course Design

Holopainen, Jani; Lähtevänoja, Antti; Sandström, Niclas; Nevgi, Anne; Mattila, Osmo; Pöyry, Essi; Parvinen, Petri


Practitioners including designers and teachers developing Virtual Reality (VR) courses are facing a question regarding the strengths and subject areas in which VR-enriched courses might have the highest potential compared to conventional courses. The present study develops a survey scale to assess and match industry managers’ requirements for skills for working life. The same scale was surveyed among two different groups of higher education students participating in conventional courses and a VR-aided course. The results indicate that the industry requirements were higher than met by the both course types. However, the results highlight a set of skills for which the VR courses have the highest potential compared to conventional courses. These skills include self-monitoring, independent thinking and understanding, adapting and applying new ideas into practice as well as creativity as a latent class theme. The paper discusses example designs based on these skills whose development is suggested to be included in the future VR course designs.


innovations in Collaborative Environments and Learning Technologies; affordance; course design; design science research; skills for working life; virtual reality

Published in

Book title: Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 2021
eISBN: 978-0-9981331-4-0
Publisher: University of Hawai'i at Manoa


54th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Honolulu, USA, January 5-8 2021

Authors' information

Holopainen, Jani
University of Helsinki
Lähtevänoja, Antti
University of Jyväskylä
Sandström, Niclas
University of Helsinki
Nevgi, Anne
University of Helsinki
University of Eastern Finland
Pöyry, Essi
University of Helsinki
Parvinen, Petri
University of Helsinki

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