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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2021

Albumin Urinary Excretion Is Associated with Increased Levels of Urinary Chemokines, Cytokines, and Growth Factors Levels in Humans

Fellstrom, Bengt; Helmersson-Karlqvist, Johanna; Lind, Lars; Soveri, Inga; Thulin, Mans; Arnlov, Johan; Kultima, Kim; Larsson, Anders


The aim of the present study was to study the associations between urine albumin excretion, and a large number of urinary chemokines, cytokines, and growth factors in a normal population. We selected 90 urine samples from individuals without CVD, diabetes, stroke or kidney disease belonging to the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors Study (41 males and 49 females, all aged 75 years). Urinary cytokine levels were analyzed with two multiplex assays (proximity extension assays) and the cytokine levels were correlated with urine albumin. After adjustment for sex, body mass index (BMI), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), smoking and multiplicity testing, 11 biomarkers remained significantly associated with urine albumin: thrombospondin 2, interleukin 6, interleukin 8, hepatocyte growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP-12), C-X-C motif chemokine 9, tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 11B, osteoprotegerin, growth-regulated alpha protein, C-X-C motif chemokine 6, oncostatin-M (OSM) and fatty acid-binding protein, intestinal, despite large differences in molecular weights. In this study, we found associations between urinary albumin and both small and large urine proteins. Additional studies are warranted to identify cytokine patterns and potential progression markers in various renal diseases.


glomerular injury; urine; thrombospondin 2; interleukin 6; interleukin 8; hepatocyte growth factor

Published in

2021, volume: 11, number: 3, article number: 396
Publisher: MDPI

Authors' information

Fellstrom, Bengt
Uppsala University Hospital
Helmersson-Karlqvist, Johanna
Uppsala University Hospital
Lind, Lars
Uppsala University Hospital
Soveri, Inga
Uppsala University Hospital
Thulin, Måns
Applied statistics and mathematics
Arnlov, Johan
Karolinska Institutet
Kultima, Kim
Uppsala University Hospital
Larsson, Anders
Uppsala University Hospital

Sustainable Development Goals

SDG3 Good health and well-being

UKÄ Subject classification

Urology and Nephrology

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