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Research article2021Peer reviewedOpen access

Albumin Urinary Excretion Is Associated with Increased Levels of Urinary Chemokines, Cytokines, and Growth Factors Levels in Humans

Fellstrom, Bengt; Helmersson-Karlqvist, Johanna; Lind, Lars; Soveri, Inga; Thulin, Mans; Arnlov, Johan; Kultima, Kim; Larsson, Anders


The aim of the present study was to study the associations between urine albumin excretion, and a large number of urinary chemokines, cytokines, and growth factors in a normal population. We selected 90 urine samples from individuals without CVD, diabetes, stroke or kidney disease belonging to the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors Study (41 males and 49 females, all aged 75 years). Urinary cytokine levels were analyzed with two multiplex assays (proximity extension assays) and the cytokine levels were correlated with urine albumin. After adjustment for sex, body mass index (BMI), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), smoking and multiplicity testing, 11 biomarkers remained significantly associated with urine albumin: thrombospondin 2, interleukin 6, interleukin 8, hepatocyte growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP-12), C-X-C motif chemokine 9, tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 11B, osteoprotegerin, growth-regulated alpha protein, C-X-C motif chemokine 6, oncostatin-M (OSM) and fatty acid-binding protein, intestinal, despite large differences in molecular weights. In this study, we found associations between urinary albumin and both small and large urine proteins. Additional studies are warranted to identify cytokine patterns and potential progression markers in various renal diseases.


glomerular injury; urine; thrombospondin 2; interleukin 6; interleukin 8; hepatocyte growth factor

Published in

2021, Volume: 11, number: 3, article number: 396
Publisher: MDPI

    Sustainable Development Goals

    SDG3 Good health and well-being

    UKÄ Subject classification

    Urology and Nephrology

    Publication identifier


    Permanent link to this page (URI)