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Research article2021Peer reviewedOpen access

Modelling effects of regeneration method on the growth and profitability of Scots pine stands

Lula, Mikolaj; Trubins, Renats; Eko, Per Magnus; Johansson, Ulf; Nilsson, Urban


Despite numerous studies there are still uncertainties regarding regeneration strategies that are optimal for productivity and profitability. Thus the aim of this study was to establish effects of three regeneration methods (planting, direct seeding and natural regeneration) on the production and profitability of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands in southern Sweden. Long-term stand development was simulated, with the StandWise application of the Heureka decision support system, starting from short-term regeneration outcomes observed in several field experiments at sites with relatively high productivity (H100 site indices, i.e. heights of dominant pines at 100 years: 27-30 m). Financial and production results of each approach were assessed in terms of Land Expectation Value (LEV) and Mean Annual Increment (MAI), respectively, across a whole rotation. Planting on clear-cuts with 1600-3265 seedlings per hectare resulted in the highest profitability and production, whereas high-density planting (10,000 seedlings per hectare) resulted in negative LEV. However, sensitivity analysis showed that the results depended on the interest rate. Retention of seed-trees incurred additional costs relative to single-operation clear felling. In contrast, retention of shelter-trees had good financial results (at 0% and 2.5% interest rate), although they depended on the site index and average tree size.


Forest economy; forest management; forest stand; growth; Land Expectation Value; regeneration method; Scots pine

Published in

Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research
2021, Volume: 36, number: 4, pages: 263-274 Publisher: TAYLOR AND FRANCIS AS