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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2021

Applying a science-based systems perspective to dispel misconceptions about climate effects of forest bioenergy

Cowie, Annette L.; Berndes, Goran; Bentsen, Niclas Scott; Brandao, Miguel; Cherubini, Francesco; Egnell, Gustaf; George, Brendan; Gustavsson, Leif; Hanewinkel, Marc; Harris, Zoe M.; Johnsson, Filip; Junginger, Martin; Kline, Keith L.; Koponen, Kati; Koppejan, Jaap; Kraxner, Florian; Lamers, Patrick; Majer, Stefan; Marland, Eric; Nabuurs, Gert-Jan;
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The scientific literature contains contrasting findings about the climate effects of forest bioenergy, partly due to the wide diversity of bioenergy systems and associated contexts, but also due to differences in assessment methods. The climate effects of bioenergy must be accurately assessed to inform policy-making, but the complexity of bioenergy systems and associated land, industry and energy systems raises challenges for assessment. We examine misconceptions about climate effects of forest bioenergy and discuss important considerations in assessing these effects and devising measures to incentivize sustainable bioenergy as a component of climate policy. The temporal and spatial system boundary and the reference (counterfactual) scenarios are key methodology choices that strongly influence results. Focussing on carbon balances of individual forest stands and comparing emissions at the point of combustion neglect system-level interactions that influence the climate effects of forest bioenergy. We highlight the need for a systems approach, in assessing options and developing policy for forest bioenergy that: (1) considers the whole life cycle of bioenergy systems, including effects of the associated forest management and harvesting on landscape carbon balances; (2) identifies how forest bioenergy can best be deployed to support energy system transformation required to achieve climate goals; and (3) incentivizes those forest bioenergy systems that augment the mitigation value of the forest sector as a whole. Emphasis on short-term emissions reduction targets can lead to decisions that make medium- to long-term climate goals more difficult to achieve. The most important climate change mitigation measure is the transformation of energy, industry and transport systems so that fossil carbon remains underground. Narrow perspectives obscure the significant role that bioenergy can play by displacing fossil fuels now, and supporting energy system transition. Greater transparency and consistency is needed in greenhouse gas reporting and accounting related to bioenergy.


energy system transition; forest carbon stock; forest management; greenhouse gas accounting; landscape scale; reference system

Published in

GCB Bioenergy
2021, volume: 13, number: 8, pages: 1210-1231
Publisher: WILEY

Authors' information

Cowie, Annette L.
University of New England
Berndes, Goran
Chalmers University of Technology
Bentsen, Niclas Scott
University of Copenhagen
Brandao, Miguel
Royal Institute of Technology
Cherubini, Francesco
Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU)
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Ecology and Management
George, Brendan
NSW Department of Primary Industries
Gustavsson, Leif
Linnaeus University
Hanewinkel, Marc
University of Freiburg
Harris, Zoe M.
Imperial College London
Johnsson, Filip
Chalmers University of Technology
Junginger, Martin
Utrecht University
Kline, Keith L.
United States Department of Energy (DOE)
Koponen, Kati
VTT Technical Research Center Finland
Koppejan, Jaap
Procede Biomass BV
Kraxner, Florian
International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)
Lamers, Patrick
United States Department of Energy (DOE)
Majer, Stefan
The Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum (DBFZ)
Marland, Eric
University of North Carolina
Nabuurs, Gert-Jan
Wageningen University and Research
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Sustainable Development Goals

SDG7 Affordable and clean energy
SDG13 Climate action
SDG12 Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns

UKÄ Subject classification

Energy Systems

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