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Research article2021Peer reviewedOpen access

Seroepidemiology of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) –in cattle across three livestock pastoral regions in Kenya

Blanco Penedo, Isabel; Obanda, Vincent; Kingori , Edward; Agwanda, Bernard ; Ahlm, Clas; Lwande, Olivia Wesula


Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne zoonotic disease, endemic in Africa, with a high case fatality rate. There is no efficient treatment or licensed vaccine. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of CCHFV in cattle in extensive grazing systems (both pastoralism and ranching) within the Maasai Mara ecosystem, Nanyuki, and the Ol Pejeta Conservancy in Kenya. We conducted a seroepidemiological study of the sera of 148 cattle from 18 households from the three ecosystems in 2014, 2016, and 2019. Sera from 23 sheep and 17 goats were also obtained from the same households during the same period. Sera were analyzed for the presence of antibodies to CCHFV using the commercially available double-antigen ELISA kit. Overall, 31.5% CCHFV seropositivity was observed. The prevalence of CCHF was analyzed using a multiple logistic mixed model with main predictors. Risk factors associated with exposure to CCHFV were age (p = 0.000) and season (p = 0.007). Our findings suggest exposure to CCHFV and point to cattle as likely reservoirs of CCHFV in Kenya. The findings might play a role in providing better insights into disease risk and dynamics where analysis of tick populations in these regions should be further investigated.


seroprevalence; vector-borne infections; Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever; ruminants; ecosystem; pastoralism; ranching

Published in

2021, Volume: 2, number: 3, pages: 425-434

    UKÄ Subject classification

    Clinical Science

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