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Research article2019Peer reviewedOpen access

Bromoanisoles and methoxylated bromodiphenyl ethers in macroalgae from Nordic coastal regions

Bidleman, Terry F.; Andersson, Agneta; Brugel, Sonia; Ericson, Lars; Haglund, Peter; Kupryianchyk, Darya; Lau, Danny C P; Liljelind, Per; Lundin, Lisa; Tysklind, Anders; Tysklind, Mats


Marine macroalgae are used worldwide for human consumption, animal feed, cosmetics and agriculture. In addition to beneficial nutrients, macroalgae contain halogenated natural products (HNPs), some of which have toxic properties similar to those of well-known anthropogenic contaminants. Sixteen species of red, green and brown macroalgae were collected in 2017–2018 from coastal waters of the northern Baltic Sea, Sweden Atlantic and Norway Atlantic, and analyzed for bromoanisoles (BAs) and methoxylated bromodiphenyl ethers (MeO-BDEs). Target compounds were quantified by gas chromatography-low resolution mass spectrometry (GC-LRMS), with qualitative confirmation in selected species by GC-high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS). Quantified compounds were 2,4-diBA, 2,4,6-triBA, 2′-MeO-BDE68, 6-MeO-BDE47, and two tribromo-MeO-BDEs and one tetrabromo-MeO-BDE with unknown bromine substituent positions. Semiquantitative results for pentabromo-MeO-BDEs were also obtained for a few species by GC-HRMS. Three extraction methods were compared; soaking in methanol, soaking in methanol–dichloromethane, and blending with mixed solvents. Extraction yields of BAs did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) with the three methods and the two soaking methods gave equivalent yields of MeO-BDEs. Extraction efficiencies of MeO-BDEs were significantly lower using the blend method (p 100 pg g−1 ww. Profiles of individual compounds showed distinct differences among species and locations.

Published in

Environmental Science: Processes and Impacts
2019, Volume: 21, number: 5, article number: 881

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    Environmental Sciences

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