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Review article - Peer-reviewed, 2022

Increasing risks for emerging infectious diseases within a rapidly changing High Asia

Mishra, Charudutt; Samelius, Gustaf; Khanyari, Munib; Srinivas, Prashanth Nuggehalli; Low, Matthew; Esson, Carol; Venkatachalam, Suri; Johansson, Orjan


The cold and arid mountains and plateaus of High Asia, inhabited by a relatively sparse human population, a high density of livestock, and wildlife such as the iconic snow leopard Panthera uncia, are usually considered low risk for disease outbreaks. However, based on current knowledge about drivers of disease emergence, we show that High Asia is rapidly developing conditions that favor increased emergence of infectious diseases and zoonoses. This is because of the existing prevalence of potentially serious pathogens in the system; intensifying environmental degradation; rapid changes in local ecological, socio-ecological, and socio-economic factors; and global risk intensifiers such as climate change and globalization. To better understand and manage the risks posed by diseases to humans, livestock, and wildlife, there is an urgent need for establishing a disease surveillance system and improving human and animal health care. Public health must be integrated with conservation programs, more ecologically sustainable development efforts and long-term disease surveillance.


Mountains; One Health; Pandemics; Panthera uncia; Snow leopard; Zoonoses

Published in

AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment
2022, volume: 51, number: 3, pages: 494-507
Publisher: SPRINGER

Authors' information

Mishra, Charudutt
Snow Leopard Trust
Samelius, Gustaf
Snow Leopard Trust
Khanyari, Munib
Snow Leopard Trust
Srinivas, Prashanth Nuggehalli
The Institute of Public Health
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Ecology
Esson, Carol
No organisation
Venkatachalam, Suri
Nature Conservation Foundation
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Ecology

Sustainable Development Goals

SDG15 Life on land
SDG13 Climate action
SDG3 Good health and well-being

UKÄ Subject classification

Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Environmental Sciences

Publication Identifiers


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