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Research article2021Peer reviewedOpen access

Biomarkers after Controlled Inhalation Exposure to Exhaust from Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil (HVO)

Krais, Annette M.; Essig, Julie Y.; Gren, Louise; Vogs, Carolina; Assarsson, Eva; Dierschke, Katrin; Nielsen, Jorn; Strandberg, Bo; Pagels, Joakim; Broberg, Karin; Lindh, Christian H.; Gudmundsson, Anders; Wierzbicka, Aneta


Hydrogenated vegetable oil (HVO) is a renewable diesel fuel used to replace petroleum diesel. The organic compounds in HVO are poorly characterized; therefore, toxicological properties could be different from petroleum diesel exhaust. The aim of this study was to evaluate the exposure and effective biomarkers in 18 individuals after short-term (3 h) exposure to HVO exhaust and petroleum diesel exhaust fumes. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was used to analyze urinary biomarkers. A proximity extension assay was used for the measurement of inflammatory proteins in plasma samples. Short-term (3 h) exposure to HVO exhaust (PM1 similar to 1 mu g/m(3) and similar to 90 mu g/m(3) for vehicles with and without exhaust aftertreatment systems, respectively) did not increase any exposure biomarker, whereas petroleum diesel exhaust (PM1 similar to 300 mu g/m(3)) increased urinary 4-MHA, a biomarker for p-xylene. HVO exhaust from the vehicle without exhaust aftertreatment system increased urinary 4-HNE-MA, a biomarker for lipid peroxidation, from 64 ng/mL urine (before exposure) to 141 ng/mL (24 h after exposure, p < 0.001). There was no differential expression of plasma inflammatory proteins between the HVO exhaust and control exposure group. In conclusion, short-term exposure to low concentrations of HVO exhaust did not increase urinary exposure biomarkers, but caused a slight increase in lipid peroxidation associated with the particle fraction.


renewable diesel; HVO; exposure studies; biomarkers; aerosol; lipid peroxidation

Published in

International journal of environmental research and public health
2021, Volume: 18, number: 12, article number: 6492
Publisher: MDPI

    Sustainable Development Goals

    Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all

    UKÄ Subject classification

    Environmental Health and Occupational Health

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