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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2021

Biomarkers after Controlled Inhalation Exposure to Exhaust from Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil (HVO)

Krais, Annette M.; Essig, Julie Y.; Gren, Louise; Vogs, Carolina; Assarsson, Eva; Dierschke, Katrin; Nielsen, Jorn; Strandberg, Bo; Pagels, Joakim; Broberg, Karin; Lindh, Christian H.; Gudmundsson, Anders; Wierzbicka, Aneta;


Hydrogenated vegetable oil (HVO) is a renewable diesel fuel used to replace petroleum diesel. The organic compounds in HVO are poorly characterized; therefore, toxicological properties could be different from petroleum diesel exhaust. The aim of this study was to evaluate the exposure and effective biomarkers in 18 individuals after short-term (3 h) exposure to HVO exhaust and petroleum diesel exhaust fumes. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was used to analyze urinary biomarkers. A proximity extension assay was used for the measurement of inflammatory proteins in plasma samples. Short-term (3 h) exposure to HVO exhaust (PM1 similar to 1 mu g/m(3) and similar to 90 mu g/m(3) for vehicles with and without exhaust aftertreatment systems, respectively) did not increase any exposure biomarker, whereas petroleum diesel exhaust (PM1 similar to 300 mu g/m(3)) increased urinary 4-MHA, a biomarker for p-xylene. HVO exhaust from the vehicle without exhaust aftertreatment system increased urinary 4-HNE-MA, a biomarker for lipid peroxidation, from 64 ng/mL urine (before exposure) to 141 ng/mL (24 h after exposure, p < 0.001). There was no differential expression of plasma inflammatory proteins between the HVO exhaust and control exposure group. In conclusion, short-term exposure to low concentrations of HVO exhaust did not increase urinary exposure biomarkers, but caused a slight increase in lipid peroxidation associated with the particle fraction.


renewable diesel; HVO; exposure studies; biomarkers; aerosol; lipid peroxidation

Published in

International journal of environmental research and public health

2021, volume: 18, number: 12, article number: 6492
Publisher: MDPI

Authors' information

Krais, Annette M.
Lund University
Essig, Julie Y.
Lund University
Gren, Louise
Lund University
Assarsson, Eva
Lund University
Dierschke, Katrin
Lund University
Nielsen, Jorn
Lund University
Strandberg, Bo
Lund University
Pagels, Joakim
Lund University
Broberg, Karin
Lund University
Lindh, Christian H.
Lund University
Gudmundsson, Anders
Lund University
Wierzbicka, Aneta
Lund University

Sustainable Development Goals

SDG7 Affordable and clean energy

UKÄ Subject classification

Environmental Health and Occupational Health

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