Skip to main content
SLU publication database (SLUpub)

Research article2021Peer reviewedOpen access

Exposure assessment of treated greywater reused for irrigation

Potivichayanon, Siraporn; Sittitoon, Nalin; Vinneras, Bjorn


The aim of study was to assess the risk of exposure of treated greywater reused for irrigation. It consisted of untreated and treated greywater quality analysis and heavy metal exposure assessment. After treatment with a local conventional stabilization pond, parameters such as BOD, COD, Zn, and Pb dropped to 35.63, 9.95, 0.011, and 0.001 mg/L, respectively. Total coliform and fecal coliform were decreased to 23,417 and 5,666 MPN/100 mL, respectively. These results showed almost all detected contaminants in treated greywater were minimized and did not exceed Thailand's standard and World Health Organization guidelines. After that, treated greywater was reused for irrigation. There were three vegetable plots: treated greywater, tap water with fertilizer, and tap water. There were seven edible plants, four leafy and three fruiting vegetables, cultivated in each plot. Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, and Hg were detected depending on kind of plant; for example, the maximum concentration was found in leafy vegetables. However, the concentrations of contaminants did not exceed the Codex standard for contaminants and toxins in foods and Thailand's standard. Risk characterization showed no risk with a hazard quotient far less than 1. Therefore, treated greywater reuse could be considered to promote sustainable water management in community.


conventional stabilization pond; exposure assessment; greywater; greywater reuse; plant irrigation

Published in

Water Science and Technology: Water Supply
2021, Volume: 21, number: 8, pages: 4404-4417

    Sustainable Development Goals

    Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all
    End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture

    UKÄ Subject classification

    Environmental Sciences

    Publication identifier


    Permanent link to this page (URI)