Skip to main content
Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2021

Using Rhodamine B to assess the movement of small mammals in an urban slum

Awoniyi, Adedayo Michael; Souza, Fabio Neves; Zeppelini, Caio Graco; Xavier, Barbara Ines A.; Barreto, Ana Maria; Santiago, Diogo Cesar C.; Santana, Juliet Oliveira; da Silva, Eduardo Mendes; Costa, Federico; Begon, Michael; Khalil, Hussein


The small mammals, especially rats are pest species that are present in cities world-wide. The rat moves around and into residences and other anthropogenic structures. It is especially ubiquitous in urban slums and a threat to infrastructure and public health due to the pathogens it carries and transmits. Effective control of rat populations in most urban areas has been unsuccessful, despite several rodent control efforts. Limited information about rat movement distance has hindered identification of control units and effective scales at which to enact control during interventions. We evaluated the suitability of Rhodamine B, a non-toxic biomarker, for assessing the distance travelled by rats in urban slums. We tracked rats over two campaigns between 2019 and 2020. Overall, 27.9% of trapped rats showed signs of Rhodamine B in their whiskers under fluorescence microscope. This shows that our method provides a viable alternative for investigating the movement of small mammals in this area. We found that rats move up to 90 m distance in urban slums, with smaller rats travelling more actively than bigger rats. Information obtained from this study should be useful in guiding efficient rodent control initiatives to reduce the risk of household rodent infestation and rodent-borne disease in urban slums.


rat; rhodamine B; rodent; slum; snap trap; zoonoses

Published in

Methods in Ecology and Evolution
2021, volume: 12, number: 11, pages: 2234-2242
Publisher: WILEY

Authors' information

Awoniyi, Adedayo Michael
Federal University of Bahia (UFBA)
Souza, Fabio Neves
Federal University of Bahia (UFBA)
Graco Zeppelini, Caio
Federal University of Bahia (UFBA)
Xavier, Barbara Ines A.
Federal University of Bahia (UFBA)
Barreto, Ana Maria
Federal University of Bahia (UFBA)
Santiago, Diogo Cesar C.
Universidade Federal da Bahia
Oliveira Santana, Juliet
Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ)
Mendes da Silva, Eduardo
Federal University of Bahia (UFBA)
Costa, Federico
Lancaster University
Begon, Michael
University of Liverpool
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies

Sustainable Development Goals

SDG11 Sustainable cities and communities

UKÄ Subject classification

Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology

Publication Identifiers


URI (permanent link to this page)