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Research article2021Peer reviewedOpen access

Efficient Protoplast Regeneration Protocol and CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Editing of Glucosinolate Transporter (GTR) Genes in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

Li, Xueyuan; Sandgrind, Sjur; Moss, Oliver; Guan, Rui; Ivarson, Emelie; Wang, Eu Sheng; Kanagarajan, Selvaraju; Zhu, Li-Hua


Difficulty in protoplast regeneration is a major obstacle to apply the CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technique effectively in research and breeding of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). The present study describes for the first time a rapid and efficient protocol for the isolation, regeneration and transfection of protoplasts of rapeseed cv. Kumily, and its application in gene editing. Protoplasts isolated from leaves of 3-4 weeks old were cultured in MI and MII liquid media for cell wall formation and cell division, followed by subculture on shoot induction medium and shoot regeneration medium for shoot production. Different basal media, types and combinations of plant growth regulators, and protoplast culture duration on each type of media were investigated in relation to protoplast regeneration. The results showed that relatively high concentrations of NAA (0.5 mg l(-1)) and 2,4-D (0.5 mg l(-1)) in the MI medium were essential for protoplasts to form cell walls and maintain cell divisions, and thereafter auxin should be reduced for callus formation and shoot induction. For shoot regeneration, relatively high concentrations of cytokinin were required, and among all the combinations tested, 2.2 mg l(-1) TDZ in combination with auxin 0.5 mg l(-1) NAA gave the best result with up to 45% shoot regeneration. Our results also showed the duration of protoplast culture on different media was critical, as longer culture durations would significantly reduce the shoot regeneration frequency. In addition, we have optimized the transfection protocol for rapeseed. Using this optimized protocol, we have successfully edited the BnGTR genes controlling glucosinolate transport in rapeseed with a high mutation frequency.


Brassica napus; CRISPR; Cas9; gene editing; glucosinolate transporter; GTR gene; protoplast regeneration

Published in

Frontiers in Plant Science
2021, Volume: 12, article number: 680859