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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2021

Existence and Quality of Data on Control Programs for EU Non-regulated Cattle Diseases: Consequences for Estimation and Comparison of the Probability of Freedom From Infection

Rapaliute, Egle; van Roon, Annika; van Schaik, Gerdien; Santman-Berends, Inge; Koleci, Xhelil; Mincu, Madalina; Gethmann, Jorn; Conrady, Beate; Knific, Tanja; Hodnik, Jaka Jakob; Berezowski, John; Carmo, Luis Pedro; Madouasse, Aurelien; Tarpai, Attila; Gerilovych, Anton; Malakauskas, Alvydas; Sekovska, Blagica; Fourichon, Christine; Kalaitzakis, Emmanouil; Roch, Franz-Ferdinand;
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Some European countries have successfully implemented country-specific control programs (CPs) for infectious cattle diseases that are not regulated or are regulated only to a limited extent at the European Union (EU) level. Examples of such diseases include bovine viral diarrhea (BVD), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR), and Johne's disease (JD). The CPs vary between countries in the design and quality of collected data as well as methods used to detect infection and estimate prevalence or probability of freedom from infection. Differences in disease status between countries and non-standardized approaches to assess freedom from infection pose a risk for countries with CPs for non-regulated diseases as infected animals may influence the progress of the disease control or eradication program. The implementation of output-based standards allows estimation and comparison of the probability of freedom for non-regulated cattle diseases in European countries. The aim of the current study was to assess the existence and quality of data that could be used for estimating freedom from infection in European countries. The online data collection tool was sent to 32 countries participating in the SOUND control COST Action and was completed by 24 countries. Data on cattle demographics and data from CPs of IBR and BVD exist in more than 50% of the response countries. However, data describing risk factors and CP of JD was reported as existing in < 25% of the countries. The overall quality of data in the sections on demographics and CPs of IBR and BVD were evaluated as "good ", but risk factors and JD data were mostly evaluated as "fair. " Data quality was considered less good mainly due to two quality criteria: accessibility and accuracy. The results of this study show that the quantity and quality of data about cattle populations and CPs are relatively similar in many surveyed countries. The outcome of this work provides an overview of the current situation in the European countries regarding data on EU non-regulated cattle diseases and will further assist in the development and implementation of output-based standards.


animal health data; cattle; control programs; non-regulated diseases; output-based; proof of freedom

Published in

Frontiers in Veterinary Science
2021, volume: 8, article number: 689375

Authors' information

Rapaliute, Egle
Lithuanian University of Health Sciences
van Roon, Annika
Utrecht University
van Schaik, Gerdien
Utrecht University
Santman-Berends, Inge
Utrecht University
Koleci, Xhelil
Agricultural University of Tirana
Mincu, Madalina
Res and Dev Inst Bovine Balotesti
Gethmann, Jorn
Friedrich Loeffler Institute
Conrady, Beate
University of Copenhagen
Conrady, Beate
Complex Sci Hub Vienna
Conrady, Beate
University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna
Knific, Tanja
University of Ljubljana
Hodnik, Jaka Jakob
University of Ljubljana
Berezowski, John
University of Bern
Carmo, Luis Pedro
University of Bern
Madouasse, Aurelien
Tarpai, Attila
Norwegian Veterinary Institute
Gerilovych, Anton
Inst Expt and Clin Vet Med
Malakauskas, Alvydas
Lithuanian University of Health Sciences
Sekovska, Blagica
Saints Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje
Fourichon, Christine
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Sustainable Development Goals

SDG9 Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation

UKÄ Subject classification

Clinical Science

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