Skip to main content
Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2021

Optimization of Culture Conditions and Production of Bio-Fungicides from Trichoderma Species under Solid-State Fermentation Using Mathematical Modeling

Mulatu, Afrasa; Alemu, Tesfaye; Megersa, Negussie; Vetukuri, Ramesh R.


Agro-industrial wastes suitable for economical and high mass production of novel Trichoderma species under solid-state fermentation were identified by optimizing the culture conditions using a mathematical model and evaluating the viability of the formulated bio-product. Fourteen inexpensive, locally available, organic substrates and cereals were examined using a one-factor-at-a-time experiment. The fungus colonized nearly all substrates after 21 days of incubation, although the degree of colonization and conidiation varied among the substrates. A mixture of wheat bran and white rice (2:1 w/w) was found to support maximum growth of T. asperellum AU131 (3.2 x 10(7) spores/g dry substrate) and T. longibrachiatum AU158 (3.5 x 10(7) spores/g dry substrate). Using a fractional factorial design, the most significant growth factors influencing biomass production were found to be temperature, moisture content, inoculum concentration, and incubation period (p <= 0.05). Analysis of variance of a Box-Behnken design showed that the regression model was highly significant (p <= 0.05) with F-values of 10.38 (P = 0.0027, T. asperellum AU131) and 12.01 (p < 0.0017, T. longibrachiatum AU158). Under optimal conditions, maximum conidia yield of log(10) (8.6) (T. asperellum AU131) and log(10)(9.18) (T. longibrachiatum) were obtained. For wettable powder Trichoderma species formulations, it was possible to maintain conidial viability at room temperature (25 degrees C) for eight months at concentrations above 10(6) CFU/g.


agro-industrial waste; bioformulation; response surface methodology; viability; wheat bran

Published in

2021, volume: 9, number: 8, article number: 1675
Publisher: MDPI

Authors' information

Mulatu, Afrasa
Addis Ababa University
Alemu, Tesfaye
Addis Ababa University
Megersa, Negussie
Addis Ababa University
Vetukuri, Ramesh (Ramesh, Vetukuri)
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Plant Breeding

UKÄ Subject classification

Chemical Process Engineering

Publication Identifiers


URI (permanent link to this page)