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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2021

Overview of Cattle Diseases Listed Under Category C, D or E in the Animal Health Law for Which Control Programmes Are in Place Within Europe

Hodnik, Jaka Jakob; Acinger-Rogic, Zaklin; Alishani, Mentor; Autio, Tiina; Balseiro, Ana; Berezowski, John; Carmo, Luis Pedro; Chaligiannis, Ilias; Conrady, Beate; Costa, Lina; Cvetkovikj, Iskra; Davidov, Ivana; Dispas, Marc; Djadjovski, Igor; Duarte, Elsa Leclerc; Faverjon, Celine; Fourichon, Christine; Frossling, Jenny; Gerilovych, Anton; Gethmann, Jorn;
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The COST action "Standardising output-based surveillance to control non-regulated diseases of cattle in the European Union (SOUND control), " aims to harmonise the results of surveillance and control programmes (CPs) for non-EU regulated cattle diseases to facilitate safe trade and improve overall control of cattle infectious diseases. In this paper we aimed to provide an overview on the diversity of control for these diseases in Europe. A non-EU regulated cattle disease was defined as an infectious disease of cattle with no or limited control at EU level, which is not included in the European Union Animal health law Categories A or B under Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2020/2002. A CP was defined as surveillance and/or intervention strategies designed to lower the incidence, prevalence, mortality or prove freedom from a specific disease in a region or country. Passive surveillance, and active surveillance of breeding bulls under Council Directive 88/407/EEC were not considered as CPs. A questionnaire was designed to obtain country-specific information about CPs for each disease. Animal health experts from 33 European countries completed the questionnaire. Overall, there are 23 diseases for which a CP exists in one or more of the countries studied. The diseases for which CPs exist in the highest number of countries are enzootic bovine leukosis, bluetongue, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhoea and anthrax (CPs reported by between 16 and 31 countries). Every participating country has on average, 6 CPs (min-max: 1-13) in place. Most programmes are implemented at a national level (86%) and are applied to both dairy and non-dairy cattle (75%). Approximately one-third of the CPs are voluntary, and the funding structure is divided between government and private resources. Countries that have eradicated diseases like enzootic bovine leukosis, bluetongue, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and bovine viral diarrhoea have implemented CPs for other diseases to further improve the health status of cattle in their country. The control of non-EU regulated cattle diseases is very heterogenous in Europe. Therefore, the standardising of the outputs of these programmes to enable comparison represents a challenge.


disease control; SOUND control; control programmes; Europe; cattle; output-based standards

Published in

Frontiers in Veterinary Science
2021, volume: 8, article number: 688078

Authors' information

Hodnik, Jaka Jakob
University of Ljubljana
Acinger-Rogic, Zaklin
Veterinary and Food Safety Directorate
Alishani, Mentor
Univ Prishtina
Autio, Tiina
Finnish Food Authority
Balseiro, Ana
Universidad de Leon
Berezowski, John
University of Bern
Carmo, Luis Pedro
University of Bern
Chaligiannis, Ilias
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
Conrady, Beate
University of Copenhagen
Conrady, Beate
Complex Sci Hub Vienna
Costa, Lina
Polytechnic Institute of Porto
Cvetkovikj, Iskra
Saints Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje
Davidov, Ivana
University of Novi Sad
Dispas, Marc
Djadjovski, Igor
Saints Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje
Duarte, Elsa Leclerc
University of Evora
Faverjon, Celine
Ausvet Europe
Fourichon, Christine
National Veterinary Institute (SVA)
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Animal Environment and Health
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UKÄ Subject classification

Clinical Science

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