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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2021

Understanding Antibiotic Usage on Small-Scale Dairy Farms in the Indian States of Assam and Haryana Using a Mixed-Methods Approach-Outcomes and Challenges

Kumar, Naresh; Sharma, Garima; Leahy, Eithne; Shome, Bibek R.; Bandyopadhyay, Samiran; Deka, Ram Pratim; Shome, Rajeswari; Dey, Tushar Kumar; Lindahl, Johanna Frida

Abstract

The use and misuse of antibiotics in both humans and animals contributes to the global emergence of antimicrobial resistant (AMR) bacteria, a threat to public health and infection control. Currently, India is the world's leading milk producer but antibiotic usage within the dairy sector is poorly regulated. Little data exists reflecting how antibiotics are used on dairy farms, especially on small-scale dairy farms in India. To address this lack of data, a study was carried out on 491 small-scale dairy farms in two Indian states, Assam and Haryana, using a mixed method approach where farmers were interviewed, farms inspected for the presence of antibiotics and milk samples taken to determine antibiotic usage. Usage of antibiotics on farms appeared low only 10% (95% CI 8-13%) of farmers surveyed confirmed using antibiotics in their dairy herds during the last 12 months. Of the farms surveyed, only 8% (6-11%) had milk samples positive for antibiotic residues, namely from the novobiocin, macrolides, and sulphonamide classes of antibiotics. Of the farmers surveyed, only 2% (0.8-3%) had heard of the term "withdrawal period" and 53% (40-65%) failed to describe the term "antibiotic". While this study clearly highlights a lack of understanding of antibiotics among small-scale dairy farmers, a potential factor in the emergence of AMR bacteria, it also shows that antibiotic usage on these farms is low and that the possible role these farmers play in AMR emergence may be overestimated.

Keywords

antibiotic usage; smallholder dairy; India; KAP; residues in milk; farm inspection; farmer misconceptions

Published in

Antibiotics
2021, volume: 10, number: 9, article number: 1124
Publisher: MDPI

Authors' information

Kumar, Naresh
Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR)
Sharma, Garima
International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)
Sharma, Garima
Uppsala University
Leahy, Eithne
International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)
Shome, Bibek R.
Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR)
Bandyopadhyay, Samiran
Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR)
Pratim Deka, Ram
International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)
Pratim Deka, Ram
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Clinical Sciences
Shome, Rajeswari
Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR)
Dey, Tushar Kumar
Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR)
Dey, Tushar Kumar
International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)
Dey, Tushar Kumar
Uppsala University
International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)
Uppsala University
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Clinical Sciences

Sustainable Development Goals

SDG3 Good health and wellbeing

UKÄ Subject classification

Clinical Science

Publication Identifiers

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10091124

URI (permanent link to this page)

https://res.slu.se/id/publ/113886