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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2021

Air pollutants from shipping: Costs of NOx emissions to the Baltic Sea

Gren, Ing-Marie; Brutemark, Andreas; Jagerbrand, Annika


Despite a large body of literature on the calculations of costs of air emissions from shipping, calculations of damages to the marine water are missing. This paper calculated the costs of NOx emissions from shipping entering an environmentally heterogeneous sea by applying the abatement cost approach. The total costs and unit shadow cost of NOx were then calculated by means of the marginal abatement cost for international agreements on targets of nitrogen loads to the sea. This conceptual model highlighted the need to distinguish between direct emissions of NOx on the sea and indirect emissions through deposition of emissions on land in the catchment with subsequent transportation into the sea. Calculated total cost amounted to 240 million euros, where indirect deposition accounted for 23% of the costs. The unit shadow costs ranged between 1.41 and 3.69 euros/kg NOx-N depending on location of the vessel.


NOx emissions; Marine environmental damage; Shipping; Shadow pricing; Abatement cost approach; Baltic sea

Published in

Journal of Environmental Management
2021, volume: 300, article number: 113824

Authors' information

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Economics
Brutemark, Andreas
Calluna AB
Jägerbrand, Annika
Calluna AB

Sustainable Development Goals

SDG14 Life below water
SDG9 Industry, innovation and infrastructure

UKÄ Subject classification

Environmental Sciences

Publication Identifiers


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