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Research article2022Peer reviewedOpen access

When to branch: seasonal control of shoot architecture in trees

Singh, Rajesh Kumar; Bhalerao, Rishikesh P.; Maurya, Jay P.


Long-lived perennial plants optimize their shoot architecture by responding to seasonal cues. The main strategy used by plants of temperate and boreal regions with respect to surviving the extremely unfavourable conditions of winter comprises the protection of their apical and lateral meristematic tissues. This involves myriads of transcriptional, translational and metabolic changes in the plants because shoot architecture is controlled by multiple pathways that regulate processes such as bud formation and flowering, small RNAs, environmental factors (especially light quality, photoperiod and temperature), hormones, and sugars. Recent studies have begun to reveal how these pathways are recruited for the seasonal adaptation and regulation of shoot architecture in perennial plants, including the role of a regulatory module consisting of antagonistic players terminal flower 1 (TFL1) and like-ap1 (LAP1) in the hybrid aspen. Here, we review recent progress in our understanding of the genetic control of shoot architecture in perennials compared to in annuals.


axillary buds; branching; photoperiod; seasonal growth; shoot architecture; temperature

Published in

The Febs Journal
2022, Volume: 289, number: 24, pages: 8062-8070 Publisher: WILEY