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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2021

Mitochondrial DNA D-loop sequence analysis reveals high variation and multiple maternal origins of indigenous Tanzanian goat populations

Nguluma, Athumani; Kyallo, Martina; Tarekegn, Getinet Mekuriaw; Loina, Rose; Nziku, Zabron; Chenyambuga, Sebastian; Pelle, Roger


The Small East African (SEA) goat are widely distributed in different agro-ecological zones of Tanzania. We report the genetic diversity, maternal origin, and phylogenetic relationship among the 12 Tanzanian indigenous goat populations, namely Fipa, Songwe, Tanga, Pwani, Iringa, Newala, Lindi, Gogo, Pare, Maasai, Sukuma, and Ujiji, based on the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop. High haplotype (H-d = 0.9619-0.9945) and nucleotide (pi = 0.0120-0.0162) diversities were observed from a total of 389 haplotypes. The majority of the haplotypes (n = 334) belonged to Haplogroup A which was consistent with the global scenario on the genetic pattern of maternal origin of all goat breeds in the world. Haplogroup G comprised of 45 haplotypes drawn from all populations except the Ujiji goat population while Haplogroup B with 10 haplotypes was dominated by Ujiji goats (41%). Tanzanian goats shared four haplotypes with the Kenyan goats and two with goats from South Africa, Namibia, and Mozambique. There was no sharing of haplotypes observed between individuals from Tanzanian goat populations with individuals from North or West Africa. The indigenous goats in Tanzania have high genetic diversity defined by 389 haplotypes and multiple maternal origins of haplogroup A, B, and G. There is a lot of intermixing and high genetic variation within populations which represent an abundant resource for selective breeding in the different agro-ecological regions of the country.


demographic history; genetic variation; haplogroups; indigenous goats

Published in

Ecology and Evolution
2021, volume: 11, number: 22, pages: 15961-15971
Publisher: WILEY

Authors' information

Nguluma, Athumani
Sokoine University of Agriculture
Kyallo, Martina
International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics
Bahir Dar University
Loina, Rose
Tanzania Livestock Research Institute (TALIRI)
Nziku, Zabron
Tanzania Livestock Research Institute (TALIRI)
Chenyambuga, Sebastian
Sokoine University of Agriculture
Pelle, Roger
International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)

UKÄ Subject classification

Evolutionary Biology

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