Skip to main content
Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2021

Interactions between Biochar and Compost Treatment and Mycorrhizal Fungi to Improve the Qualitative Properties of a Calcareous Soil under Rhizobox Conditions

Vahedi, Roghayeh; Rasouli-Sadaghiani, MirHassan; Barin, Mohsen; Vetukuri, Ramesh Raju;


Most calcareous soils have relatively low levels of organic matter. To evaluate the effect of pruning waste biochar (PWB) and pruning waste compost (PWC) combined with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on the biological indices, a rhizobox study on wheat using a completely randomized design was conducted under greenhouse conditions. The studied factors included the source of organic material (PWB, PWC, and control), the microbial inoculation (+AMF or -AMF), and the zone (rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil). At the end of the plant growth period, organic carbon (OC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), microbial biomass phosphorous (MBP), microbial respiration (BR), substrate-induced respiration (SIR), and alkaline (ALP) and acid (ACP) phosphatase enzyme activities in the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils were determined. Simultaneous application of a source of organic matter and AMF inoculation significantly increased the OC and biological indices of soil relative to those observed when applying organic matter without AMF inoculation. Additionally, MBC, MBP, ACP, and ALP enzymes activities in the rhizosphere zone were significantly higher than in the non-rhizosphere. AMF increased BR and SIR levels in the rhizosphere by 13.06% and 7.95% compared to those in the non-rhizosphere, respectively. It can be concluded that PWC and PWB can improve soil biological properties by increasing microbial activity.


biological indices; biochar and compost treatment; calcareous soil; mycorrhizal fungi; rhizobox; wheat cultivation

Published in


2021, volume: 11, number: 10, article number: 993
Publisher: MDPI

Authors' information

Vahedi, Roghayeh
Urmia University
Rasouli-Sadaghiani, MirHassan
Urmia University
Barin, Mohsen
Urmia University
Vetukuri, Ramesh (Ramesh, Vetukuri)
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Plant Breeding

Sustainable Development Goals

SDG15 Life on land

UKÄ Subject classification

Soil Science

Publication Identifiers


URI (permanent link to this page)