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Review article2022Peer reviewedOpen access

Frass derived from black soldier fly treatment of biodegradable wastes. A critical review and future perspectives

Lopes, Iva Guidini; Yong, Jean W. H.; Lalander, Cecilia


Inadequately treated biodegradable waste is considered an environmental, social and economic threat worldwide, which call for great attention. Waste treatment with larvae of the black soldier fly (BSF, Hermetia illucens) complies with the concepts of circular economy, as it enables the transformation of these wastes into marketable products, closing loops and promoting circularity. The processing residues of the treatment (frass) is constantly generated in waste management facilities in large volumes, and this product can be used as an organic fertilizer in agriculture, stimulating a transition to a circular economy. However, many aspects related to frass are still unknown, such as its varying composition of nutrients, microorganisms and bioactive compounds, its post processing requirements for improved biological stabilization, its behavior in the soil and action in the plants' metabolism, among other aspects. In this review article, we highlight the potential of frass from BSF larvae treatment of biodegradable waste in the world market regarding its possible use as a fertilizer, summarize recent results with this novel product and point towards future research perspectives.


Hermetia illucens; Biotechnology; Fertilizer; Agriculture; Biostimulants

Published in

Waste Management
2022, Volume: 142, pages: 65-76

        SLU Authors

      • Associated SLU-program

        SLU Plant Protection Network
        Food Waste

        Sustainable Development Goals

        SDG11 Sustainable cities and communities
        SDG12 Responsible consumption and production
        SDG13 Climate action

        UKÄ Subject classification

        Other Environmental Engineering

        Publication identifier


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