Protecting forest edges using trap logs - Limited effects of associated push-pull strategies targeting Ips typographusLindmark, Matilda; Wallin, Erika A.; Jonsson, Bengt-Gunnar;
Bark beetles can cause epidemic outbreaks and kill millions of cubic meters of economical and ecologically important forests around the world. It is well known what attracts and what repels different species of bark beetle, and these chemical cues can be used to protect trees and catch the beetles without using pesticides. Applying this knowledge, we investigated the use of push-pull strategies with trap logs along susceptible edges of a Swedish boreal spruce forest. The repellents (push) used were non-host volatiles (NHV) attached to tree trunks at the forest edge, and the attractants (pull) was a commercial aggregation pheromone attached to trap logs. The aim was to test whether the Ips typographus catch could be significantly increased by combining a push-pull system with traditional trap logs, thereby providing additional protection. The experiment was performed over two years and included the main flight period of I. typographus. The study sites were clear-cuts that had been harvested the preceding winter, and sun-exposed forest edges of mature spruce were targeted for protection. A full factorial setup was used comprising two treatments (repellent and attractant) and a control. Seven replicates of the trap logs were used, three during the first year and four during the second. The number of established I. typographus maternal galleries per square meter of log surface was used as the response variable. The trap logs captured large numbers of I. typographus, at an average density of 353 and 169 maternal galleries per m(2) during year 1 and year 2, respectively, over all treatments. Based on the catch data, with a sufficient number of trap logs, the risk of tree mortality at forest edges may be reduced and we recommend its general use. However, we did not see any significant effect of either the repellent or the attractant on the density of maternal galleries. Hence, we cannot recommend the addition of chemical cues to improve the efficiency of trap logs. Although trap logs are efficient in capturing bark beetles and hence may protect forest edges, it does not imply that they can provide protection on a larger scale. In line with other studies, we hence recommend that forest management to target nature-based solutions that strengthen the resilience of forest stands, by using mixed forest stands and resistant plant species, and nurture habitats for natural predators of I. typographus.
Ips typographus; Push and pull; Semiochemical diversity hypothesis; Non-host volatiles
Published inForest Ecology and Management 2022, volume: 505, article number: 119886
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