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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2022

Contextualising rural entrepreneurship - A strong structuration perspective on gendered-local agency

Elkafrawi, Nermin; Roos, Annie; Refai, Deema


This article employs Stones’ (2005) Strong Structuration Theory (SST) to contextualise rural entrepreneurship. Through shadowing a single case study of a woman entrepreneur from rural Sweden, we propose gendered-local agency as operationalisation of active agency in practice. While SST positions active agency as a property of agents, we demonstrate it is as a property that is intertwined with both agents and structure. Simultaneously enabled and constrained, gendered-local agency itself becomes contextualised within gender-related and locality-related rural-specific interplay that modifies, preserves and challenges rural structures. The article contributes to the literature on contextualising entrepreneurship through a structuration lens by signifying gendered-local agency as a manifestation of rural-specific interplay between contexts as environments (out there) and context as constructed (through entrepreneurs). This conceptualisation proposes everyday entrepreneurship as a demonstration of agency in action, thus setting a foundation for exploring entrepreneurship through the context-specific agent-structure interplay in the rural context and others.


Agency; contextualisation; gender; gendered-local agency; locality; rural entrepreneurship; strong structuration theory

Published in

International Small Business Journal
2022, volume: 40, number: 8, article number: 02662426211069851

Authors' information

Elkafrawi, Nermin
Zagazig University
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Economics
Refai, Deema
University of Leeds

Sustainable Development Goals

SDG5 Gender equality

UKÄ Subject classification

Gender Studies

Publication Identifiers


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