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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2022

Comparing the emergence of Echinochloa crus-galli populations in different locations. Part I: Variations in emergence timing and behaviour of two populations

Royo-Esnal, Aritz; Onofri, Andrea; Loddo, Donato; Necajeva, Jevgenija; Jensen, Peter K.; Economou, Garifalia; Taab, Alireza; Synowiec, Agnieszka; Calha, Isabel M.; Andersson, Lars; Uludag, Ahmet; Uremis, Ilhan; Murdoch, Alistair J.; Torresen, Kirsten S.


Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv. is one of the most important weeds. It is distributed worldwide and has adapted to diverse habitats and climatic conditions. This study aimed to compare the emergence patterns of two populations of E. crus-galli from different environments at 11 locations across Europe and the Middle East. Seeds of the two populations were collected from maize in Italy and from spring barley in Norway and were then buried in soil in autumn 2015. In the spring of 2016, the soil was disturbed around the usual seedbed preparation date in each location and emergence was recorded. The soil was again disturbed a year later and emergence was recorded for a second season. Total emergence, the times of onset, end and to 50% emergence and the period between 25% and 75% of emergence were analysed by two-way ANOVA and principal components analysis. The Italian population showed a higher emergence than the Norwegian population in Southern locations, while the ranking was reversed in Northern locations. In almost all locations, a tendency to emerge earlier was recorded for the Norwegian population, but the periods from 25% to 75% emergence were similar for both populations. Total emergence, and the times of onset and end of emergence seemed to be mainly under genotypic (plus maternal) control, suggesting there were different temperature thresholds for seedling emergence in each population. Conversely, the duration of emergence seemed to be mainly under environmental control. This research confirms the high variability between populations and suggests the need to continue identifying key characteristics for the development of efficient models for seedling emergence in specific climates and/or latitudes.


barnyard grass; climate change; temperature thresholds

Published in

Weed Research
2022, volume: 62, number: 3, pages: 192-202
Publisher: WILEY

Authors' information

Royo-Esnal, Aritz
Universitat de Lleida
Onofri, Andrea
University of Perugia
Loddo, Donato
Istituto per la Protezione Sostenibile delle Piante (IPSP-CNR)
Necajeva, Jevgenija
Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies
Jensen, Peter K.
Aarhus University
Economou, Garifalia
Agricultural University of Athens
Synowiec, Agnieszka
Agricultural University Krakow
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Crop Production Ecology
Uludag, Ahmet
Duzce University
Uludag, Ahmet
Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University
Uremis, Ilhan
Mustafa Kemal University
Murdoch, Alistair J.
University of Reading
Torresen, Kirsten S.
Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research

Associated SLU-program

SLU Network Plant Protection

UKÄ Subject classification

Agricultural Science

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