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Doctoral thesis, 2022

Establishment and early management of young forest in Sweden : stand structure, spatial design and pre-commercial thinning

Ara, Mostarin


Demands on forests have shifted from one (production) to multiple ecosystem services. New management strategies need to be developed to balance production and other services. In this thesis, I evaluate alternative forest management strategies to balance production, profit, and multiple ecosystem services. I also emphasize describing young Swedish forests. Field experiments and national inventory data from Sweden were analysed in this thesis.

No negative effect of rectangular planting design during forest establishment was found on the production of coniferous plantations. This provides an opportunity to select microsites for planting seedlings that can improve regeneration while facilitating existing forest operations or introducing new management practices. Although during establishment, either Norway spruce or Scots pine alone is used as a regeneration tree species, young forests mostly contain a mix of these species together with naturally regenerated broadleaves. Different pre-commercial thinning (PCT) strategies were experimentally applied in young unintended mixed forest (Norway spruce and birch in this case) which showed that some PCT techniques can provide forage for ungulates without losing volume production of Norway spruce. Moreover, such a mixture might also provide a wide range of ecosystem services with no or little economic loss in the long term. In addition, PCT can increase the full rotation profitability of Norway spruce stands compared to no-PCT stands. However, the timing of PCT appears to have little effect on the profitability of Norway spruce.

Overall, alternative forest management strategies tested in this thesis show potential to provide multiple ecosystem services and flexible forest management along with profitable production.


browsing; establishment; mixed forest; pre-commercial thinning; planting design; production; young forest

Published in

Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae
2022, number: 2022:22
ISBN: 978-91-7760-919-3, eISBN: 978-91-7760-920-9
Publisher: Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences

Authors' information

Ara, Mostarin
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre

UKÄ Subject classification

Forest Science

URI (permanent link to this page)