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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2022

Effect of Biochar and Microbial Inoculation on P, Fe, and Zn Bioavailability in a Calcareous Soil

Vahedi, Roghayeh; Rasouli-Sadaghiani, Mir Hassan; Barin, Mohsen; Vetukuri, Ramesh Raju


To identify effective ways of increasing the yield of crops grown in nutrient-poor calcareous soils, the combined effects of biochar addition and inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on wheat growth and soil properties were investigated under rhizobox conditions. Measured soil properties included pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic matter content (OM), the availability of P, Fe, and Zn in the rhizosphere, and the uptake of these elements by plants. Combined biochar addition and microbial inoculation were shown to significantly increase the concentration of available forms of P, Fe, and Zn in the soil when compared to non-biochar treatments. The highest soil pH (7.82) was observed following biochar addition without microbial inoculation. The EC following biochar addition and PGPR inoculation was significantly higher than the other treatments, and the soil OM content was highest when combining AMF inoculation with biochar addition. The available P content after AMF inoculation combined with biochar addition was 27.81% higher than the control conditions, and AMF inoculation increased Fe and Zn bioavailability by factors of 2.38 and 1.29, respectively, when combined with biochar addition relative to AMF inoculation alone. The simultaneous biochar addition and PGPR inoculation significantly increased P uptake by the plants. The highest shoot Fe and Zn uptake rates were observed after a simultaneous application of biochar and PGPR inoculation. Under these conditions, shoot uptake was higher than seen when combining biochar addition with AMF inoculation by factors of 1.64 and 1.21, respectively. In general, it can be concluded that combining inoculation with growth-promoting bacteria and biochar addition can effectively improve nutrient availability to plant and soil conditions.


organic matter; pruning waste; nutrient availability; microorganism; rhizobox

Published in

2022, volume: 10, number: 2, article number: 343
Publisher: MDPI

Authors' information

Vahedi, Roghayeh
Urmia University
Rasouli-Sadaghiani, Mir Hassan
Urmia University
Barin, Mohsen
Urmia University
Vetukuri, Ramesh (Ramesh, Vetukuri)
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Plant Breeding

UKÄ Subject classification

Soil Science

Publication Identifiers


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