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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2022

Optimization of Biofertilizer Formulation for Phosphorus Solubilizing by Pseudomonas fluorescens Ur21 via Response Surface Methodology

Barin, Mohsen; Asadzadeh, Farrokh; Hosseini, Masoumeh; Hammer, Edith C.; Vetukuri, Ramesh Raju; Vahedi, Roghayeh


This study aimed to analyze and quantify the effect of different ratios of vermicompost, phosphate rock, and sulfur on P solubilization and release by Pseudomonas fluorescens Ur21, and to identify optimal levels of those variables for an efficient biofertilizer. Twenty experiments were defined by surface response methodology based on a central composite design (CCD), and the effects of various quantities of vermicompost, phosphate rock, and sulfur (encoded by -1, 0, or +1) on P solubilization was explored. The results show that the CCD model had high efficiency for predicting P solubilization (R-2 = 0.9035). The strongest effects of the included variables on the observed P solubilization were linear effects of sulfur and organic matter (vermicompost), a quadratic effect of phosphate rock, and an interactive effect of organic matter x phosphate rock. Statistical analysis of the coefficients in the CCD model revealed that vermicompost, vermicompost x phosphate rock, and phosphate rock x phosphate rock treatments increased P solubilization. The optimal predicted composition for maximal P solubilization by P. fluorescens Ur21 (at 1684.39, with more than 90% of the added phosphate dissolved) was 58.8% vermicompost, 35.3% phosphate rock, and 5.8% sulfur. ANOVA analysis confirmed the model's accuracy and validity in terms of F value (10.41), p value (<0.001), and non-significant lack of fit.


biofertilizer; central composite design; modeling; phosphate solubilizing bacteria

Published in

2022, volume: 10, number: 4, article number: 650
Publisher: MDPI

Authors' information

Barin, Mohsen
Urmia University
Asadzadeh, Farrokh
Urmia University
Hosseini, Masoumeh
Urmia University
Hammer, Edith C.
Lund University
Vetukuri, Ramesh (Ramesh, Vetukuri)
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Plant Breeding
Vahedi, Roghayeh
Urmia University

UKÄ Subject classification

Soil Science

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