Modelling fore- and hindlimb peak vertical force differences in trotting horses using upper body kinematic asymmetry variablesRoepstorff, Christoffer; Gmel, Annik Imogen; Arpagaus, Samuel; Braganca, Filipe Manuel Serra; Hernlund, Elin; Roepstorff, Lars; Rhodin, Marie; Weishaupt, Michael Andreas;
Differences in peak vertical ground reaction forces (dFzpeak) between contralateral forelimbs and hindlimbs are considered the gold standard for quantifying weight-bearing lameness. However, measuring kinematics for the same purpose is more common and practical. Vertical movement asymmetries (VMA) of the horse's upper body have previously been correlated to fore- and hindlimb lameness. But the combined response of head, withers and pelvis VMA to fore- and hindlimb dFzpeak has not yet been thoroughly investigated. Deriving the kinetic responses from kinematics would help the interpretation and understanding of quantified weight-bearing lameness.In this retrospective study, 103 horses with a wide range of fore- and hindlimb dFzpeak had been trotted on a force-measuring treadmill synchronized with an optical motion capture system. VMA of the head, withers and pelvis as well as dFzpeak were extracted. Multiple linear mixed models and linear regressions of kinematic variables were used to model the dFzpeak. It was hypothesised that all included VMA would have a significant influence on the dFzpeak outcome variables.The results showed a complex relationship between VMA and dFzpeak where both amplitude and timing of the VMA were of importance. On average, the contribution percentage of VMA to fore/hind dFzpeak were 66/34% for head, 76/24% for withers and 33/67% for pelvis. The linear regressions for the fore/hindlimb models achieved mean measurement root mean squared errors of 0.83%/0.82% dFzpeak. These results might help determine the clinical relevance of upper body VMA and distinguish between primary fore, hind, ipsilateral and diagonal weight-bearing lameness.
Equine kinematics; Kinetics; Lameness; Motion capture; Time-frequency analysis
Published inJournal of Biomechanics 2022, volume: 137, article number: 111097
Publisher: ELSEVIER SCI LTD
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Other Medical Engineering
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