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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2022

Wheat yield prediction by zero sink and equilibrium-type soil phosphorus tests

Wenzel, Walter W.; Mesmer, Cornelia; Florida, Eric J.; Puschenreiter, Markus; Kirchmann, Holger


Diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) measurements have been shown to outperform other phosphorus (P) tests in soils with strong P sorption, but this has not been confirmed for moderately weathered European soils. We compared the performance of DGT in predicting wheat grain yield in Swedish long-term fertility experiments with those of standard intensity (water-extractable P (P-H2O)) and quantity (ammonium lactate-extractable P (P-AL)) tests. A Mitscherlich-type model was used to fit wheat yield response to P application rates (0, 15, 30 or 35, and 45 kg P ha(-1) year in each individual trial replicate to estimate the maximum yield. For trials with clear plateau-type yield responses and the goodness of fit (R-2) > 0.75, relative yields (RYs) were calculated for each P treatment and plotted against the soil P test results (n = 143). The goodness of the Mitscherlich-type fits decreased in the following order: DGT-measured P (P-DGT) (R-2 = 0.35) > P-H2O (R-2 = 0.18) > P-AL (R-2 = 0.13). When excluding soils with P-AL:P-DGT >= 0.1 L g(-1), R-2 was considerably improved to 0.55 for P-AL, 0.46 for P-H2O, and 0.65 for P-DGT (n = 61). At 95% of maximum yield, the upper limit of P deficiency for P-DGT was 44.8 (the soils with P-AL:P-DGT < 0.1 L g(-1)) and 61.9 mu g L-1 (all soils), falling within the range reported for other European and Australian soils (6.0-142 mu g L-1). We show that in the investigated Swedish soils, DGT performed better than the quantity and intensity tests, which is attributed to its ability to capture P diffusion and resupply from the soil solid phase, similar to plant roots in the rhizosphere.


ammonium lactate-extractable phosphorus; diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT); distribution coefficient; long-term field experiment; Mitscherlich-type model

Published in

2022, volume: 32, number: 4, pages: 543-554

Authors' information

Wenzel, Walter W.
University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna
Mesmer, Cornelia
University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna
Florida, Eric J.
University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna
Florida, Eric J.
Mindanao State University-Naawan
Puschenreiter, Markus
University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Soil and Environment

UKÄ Subject classification

Soil Science

Publication Identifiers


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