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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2022

Economic analysis of smallholder dairy cattle enterprises in Senegal

Malenje, Evaristo Mukunda; Missohou, Ayao; Tebug, Stanly Fon; Konig, Emelie Zonabend; Jung'a, Joseph Owino; Bett, Rawlynce Cheruiyot; Marshall, Karen


Smallholder dairy production in Senegal is important to both livelihoods and food and nutrition security. Here, we examine the economic performance of smallholder dairy cattle enterprises in Senegal, using data from longitudinal monitoring of 113 households. The mean (and standard deviation) of the net returns (NR) per cow per annum (pcpa) was 21.7 (202.9) USD, whilst the NR per household herd per annum (phpa) was 106.1 (1740.3) USD. Only about half (52.2%) of the dairy cattle enterprise had a positive NR. The most significant income components were milk sale followed by animal sale, whilst the most significant cost components were animal feed followed by animal purchase. When households were grouped by ranking on NRpcpa, an interesting trend was observed: whilst the mean NRpcpa showed a fairly linear increase from the lowest to highest NR groups, income and cost did not. Income and costs were both higher for the lowest and highest NR groups, in comparison to the intermediate NR groups. The mean NRs of households grouped by the main breed type they kept were not significantly different from each other, due to large variances within the breed groups. However, the mean total income and costs were significantly higher for households mainly keeping improved dairy breeds (Bos taurus or Zebu x Bos taurus crosses) in comparison to those keeping indigenous Zebu or Zebu by Guzerat crosses. This study highlights the highly variable (and often low) profitability of smallholder dairy cattle enterprise in Senegal. Further actions to address this are strongly recommended.


Senegal; Livestock; Dairy-cattle; Milk; Smallholder; Net returns

Published in

Tropical Animal Health and Production
2022, volume: 54, article number: 221
Publisher: SPRINGER

Authors' information

Malenje, Evaristo Mukunda
University of Nairobi
Missohou, Ayao
École Inter-États des Sciences et Médecine Vétérinaires de Dakar (EISMV)
Fon Tebug, Stanly
International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics
Jung'a, Joseph Owino
University of Nairobi
Bett, Rawlynce Cheruiyot
University of Nairobi
Marshall, Karen
International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)

Sustainable Development Goals

SDG2 Zero hunger
SDG8 Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all

UKÄ Subject classification

Animal and Dairy Science

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