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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2022

First Detection of Salmonella enterica Serovar Choleraesuis in Free Ranging European Wild Boar in Sweden

Ernholm, Linda; Sternberg-Lewerin, Susanna; Agren, Erik; Stahl, Karl; Hulten, Cecilia


Following the first detection of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, serovar Choleraesuis (S. Choleraesuis) in a Swedish pig herd for more than 40 years and subsequent detection of the same serotype in an enclosure with kept wild boar, a national surveillance for S. Choleraesuis in free living wild boar was launched. A total of 633 wild boar sampled within the active and the enhanced passive surveillance were examined for Salmonella enterica serovars by culture. Of these, 80 animals were culture positive for S. Choleraesuis var. Kunzendorf. All positive animals, including those in the original outbreaks, originated from counties located in the southern and eastern parts of Sweden. Fifty-eight isolates were selected for sequence typing, revealing a relatively homogenous population of S. Choleraesuis with two distinct genetic clusters containing isolates from the southern counties in one and the counties further northeast in the other. Sequenced isolates from domestic pig farms all clustered with wild boar in the same region. S. Choleraesuis appears highly contagious in dense wild boar populations, making it a relevant model for other infectious diseases that may be transmitted to pigs. The many potential routes of introduction and spread of S. Choleraesuis warrant further investigations in order to prepare for other disease threats.


wildlife/livestock interface; surveillance; Salmonella Choleraesuis; wild boar; Sus scrofa

Published in

2022, Volume: 11, number: 7, article number: 723
Publisher: MDPI