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Research article2022Peer reviewedOpen access

Species composition, diversity and biomass estimation in coastal and marine protected areas of Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia

Pesiu, Elizabeth; Lee, Gaik Ee; Salam, Muhammad Razali; Salim, Jamilah Mohd; Lau, Kah Hoo; Yong, Jean W.H; Abdullah, Mohd Tajuddin


We investigated and compared the tree species composition and diversity of different forest types in Setiu Wetlands and on the three major islands of Terengganu. A total of 24 plots of 25 m × 25 m with four plots in each study site were established, viz. Melaleuca swamp forest in Kampung Fikri, freshwater swamp forest in Kampung Gong Batu, mangrove forest in UMT Setiu research station, and the islands, namely Pulau Bidong, Pulau Redang, and Pulau Perhentian. We calculated the basal area, stand density, Importance Value Index, species diversity, and above-ground biomass in the designated study areas. We assessed 139 tree species from 96 genera and 50 families based on a total of 2608 tree samples of 5 cm DBH and above. The freshwater swamp forest harbored the highest number of species with 20 species in Setiu Wetlands, and among the islands, Pulau Redang had the highest with 56 species. Melaleuca cajuputi was the most dominant species in the Melaleuca swamp forest, while Alstonia spatulata and Rhizophora apiculata are expected in the freshwater swamp and mangrove forest, respectively. Pulau Bidong, Pulau Redang, and Pulau Perhentian are mostly represented by Licania splendens, Shorea glauca, and Vatica sp., respectively. All the dominant species but Licania splendens contributed to the highest amount of above-ground biomass. Our current study indicated that different forest types vary in composition and structure, which may contribute to their unique ecological roles within their specific environment.


coastal and insular vegetation; protected areas; coastal wetland; freshwater swamp; mangrove; lowland dipterocarp forest

Published in

2022, Volume: 12, number: 10, article number: 2380

    Sustainable Development Goals

    SDG13 Climate action
    SDG14 Life below water
    SDG15 Life on land

    UKÄ Subject classification

    Biological Systematics
    Environmental Sciences related to Agriculture and Land-use

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