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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2023

Comparison of modeling approaches for evaluation of machine fleets in central Sweden forest operations

Jonsson, Rikard; Ronnqvist, Mikael; Flisberg, Patrik; Jonsson, Petrus; Lindroos, Ola


There are many factors to consider when deciding which technologies to use in forest operations and how to plan their use. One important factor is the overall cost when choosing between the established two-machine system (TMS) with a harvester and a forwarder, and a one-machine system with a harwarder in final fellings. Such considerations can be done with different model approaches, all of which have their strengths and weaknesses. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the TMS and harwarder potential using a Detailed Optimization (DO) approach and an Aggregated Heuristic (AH) approach. The main differences are the aggregation of seasons, including machine system teams, and spatial considerations. The analyses were done for one full year of final fellings for a large forest company's region in central Sweden, containing information necessary for calculating costs for logging, relocation between stands and traveling between the operator's home bases and the stands. The approaches were tested for two scenarios; when only TMS were available, and when both TMS and harwarders were available. The main results were that the approaches coincided well in both potential to decrease total costs when harwarders where available, and distribution of TMS and harwarders. There were some differences in the results, which can be explained by differences in thecalculation approach. It was concluded that the DO approach is more suitable when detailed analyses are prioritized, and the AH approach is more suitable when a more approximate analysis will suffice or the available resources for making the analysis are more limited.


Mixed integer programming; logging costs; scheduling; final felling; optimization; cut-to-length method

Published in

International Journal of Forest Engineering
2023, Volume: 34, number: 1, pages: 42-53