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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2022

Longitudinal Study of Selected Bacterial Zoonoses in Small Ruminants in Tana River County, Kenya

Wainaina, Martin; Lindahl, Johanna F.; Dohoo, Ian; Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Roesel, Kristina; Mbotha, Deborah; Roesler, Uwe; Grace, Delia; Bett, Bernard; Al Dahouk, Sascha;

Abstract

Brucellosis, Q fever, and leptospirosis are priority zoonoses worldwide, yet their epidemiology is understudied, and studies investigating multiple pathogens are scarce. Therefore, we selected 316 small ruminants in irrigated, pastoral, and riverine settings in Tana River County and conducted repeated sampling for animals that were initially seronegative between September 2014 and June 2015. We carried out serological and polymerase chain reaction tests and determined risk factors for exposure. The survey-weighted serological incidence rates were 1.8 (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.3-2.5) and 1.3 (95% CI: 0.7-2.3) cases per 100 animal-months at risk for Leptospira spp. and C. burnetii, respectively. We observed no seroconversions for Brucella spp. Animals from the irrigated setting had 6.83 (95% CI: 2.58-18.06, p-value = 0.01) higher odds of seropositivity to C. burnetii than those from riverine settings. Considerable co-exposure of animals to more than one zoonosis was also observed, with animals exposed to one zoonosis generally having 2.5 times higher odds of exposure to a second zoonosis. The higher incidence of C. burnetii and Leptospira spp. infections, which are understudied zoonoses in Kenya compared to Brucella spp., demonstrate the need for systematic prioritization of animal diseases to enable the appropriate allocation of resources.

Keywords

brucellosis; leptospirosis; Q fever; seroconversion; co-infection; sheep and goats; land-use changes; East Africa

Published in

Microorganisms

2022, volume: 10, number: 8, article number: 1546
Publisher: MDPI

Authors' information

Wainaina, Martin
Federal Institute for Risk Assessment
Wainaina, Martin
Free University of Berlin
Wainaina, Martin
International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)
Lindahl, Johanna F. (Lindahl, Johanna)
International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)
Lindahl, Johanna F. (Lindahl, Johanna)
Uppsala University
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Clinical Sciences
Dohoo, Ian
University of Prince Edward Island
Mayer-Scholl, Anne
Federal Institute for Risk Assessment
Roesel, Kristina
Free University of Berlin
Roesel, Kristina
CGIAR
Mbotha, Deborah
Free University of Berlin
Mbotha, Deborah
CGIAR
Roesler, Uwe
Free University of Berlin
Grace, Delia
CGIAR
Grace, Delia
University of Greenwich
Bett, Bernard
CGIAR
Al Dahouk, Sascha
Federal Institute for Risk Assessment
Al Dahouk, Sascha
RWTH Aachen University Hospital

UKÄ Subject classification

Animal and Dairy Science
Pathobiology

Publication Identifiers

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10081546

URI (permanent link to this page)

https://res.slu.se/id/publ/118943