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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2001

Variation on reaction norm in lodgepole pine natural populations

Wu, HX; Ying, CC


Variations on the norm of reaction among ten natural lodgepole pine populations sampled from three lodgepole pine subspecies (Pinus contorta ssp. contorta, ssp. latifolia and ssp. murrayana) were studied by using 20 year heights measured in 57 provenance test sites across interior British Columbia (B.C.). There were significant population by site interactions. Concurrent joint regression and the AMMI model were used to dissect these population by environmental interactions. Joint regression analysis indicated that three populations (from the northwest) had a negative linear regression coefficient with environmental deviation, three (from central and southeast sites) had a positive regression coefficient and four (from the southwest) had a zero regression coefficient. The AMMI model revealed a similar pattern of reaction norm among the ten populations. But the three significant IPCA axes, which captured twice as much of the G x E sum of squares than joint regression, were more effective in separating the ten populations and associating their performance with the climate of test sites and their origin. The variation patterns of reaction norm in lodgepole pine populations demonstrated that adaptation of lodgepole pine natural populations to the various physical environments, at sub-species as well as at population level, was due largely to a balance between selection for high growth potential in less severe environments and selection for high cold hardiness in severe environments.


norm of reaction; G x E interaction; adaptation; lodgepole pine; AMMI; provenance variation

Published in

TAG Theoretical and Applied Genetics
2001, Volume: 103, number: 2-3, pages: 331-345

    SLU Authors

    • Wu, Harry

      • Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO)

    UKÄ Subject classification

    Forest Science

    Publication Identifiers


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